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HDTV, DVD, LCD, Home Theater, DRM, Audio, Cameras, Monitors, Printers, Scanners, TiVo

10/25/2018 - Optimized for Firefox 62.0.3 (Quantum) -

COPYRIGHT 1992 thru 2018 - David R. Woodsmall

Graphic of Woodsmall Dot Com

CLICKING ONCE on a Desired, Listed subject will take you to that information

I started this web page to cover my interests in HDTV, High-quality Audio and Video, Taking, Printing and Scanning of high-quality (digital) Photographs, making backups of my personal CDs, and other such things.

I briefly mention various flavors of DRM/Copy Protection, because I know too many people who have been burned by purchasing HD video equipment that will not be able to view nor video (see and ), because their HD equipment does not support the . I usually don't mention things that are obsolete or becoming obsolete.

This information is generally in Alphabetical order, including relevant definitions, with the exception that HDTV is the first entry on this web page. All other entries are in Alphabetical order - either use the to get to an entry that interests you, or scroll down, looking for information in alphabetical order. Of course, you could also use your browser's search function

If you don't know what you are looking for here, consider some of my basic major topics: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .

If you have no preferences, I suggest you start with , which includes all subjects related to HDTV.

INDEX - DIGITAL INFO Jump Table - not all subjects have an entry

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| | | | | | | | | | | How to copy DVDs w/ImgBurn | | | | | | | | | | | ImgBurn | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

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Relevant terms are listed here, alphabetically. Not all terms have "Jump Table" entries (the above table). Note: Lots more information on Terms may be found at: .


High Definition () television (HDTV) is finally becoming available, and is capable of providing a much more detailed video picture than we in the U.S, have been getting. The older, over-the-air TV signal that you and your parents watched is now referred to as or (SD) TV. See also: HDTV's most popular are and . To be considered an HDTV, requires a vertical resolution (Vertical Resolution is the number of scanning lines presented by a video display from the top of the display to the bottom) of at least 720p. Horizontal Resolution is the amount of line detail (usually measured in pixels) that can be contained in a video format in each horizontal scanning line. The '' stands for ; the '' stands for . INTERLACED - Not all vertical lines of the video picture are displayed at once. Usually half the lines are displayed at a time, and all lines are displayed 30 times a minutes (standard TV). PROGRESSIVE/PROGRESSIVE SCAN/NON-INTERLACED - All lines of a video picture are displayed at once, from top to bottom, instead of displaying some, then displaying the others (interlaced). HDTV's are wider than Standard Definition () TVs, and have an of (16 by 9). 16x9 means that, for example, if your set's screen size were 16 inches wide, it would have a screen height of 9 inches (the ratio 16 to 9). HDTVs might be REQUIRED to have connectors in-order-to view HDTV content via 's (Digital Rights Management). In fact, the same is expected to hold true for both DVDs and s. If AACS is used, then we can expect that HD video signals NOT handled by HDMI and AACS, will be forced into a lower quality video resolution (), such as . is a fairly new specification for transferring both video and audio signals in a secure manner (so that hackers can't make copies of High Definition movies). The latest HDMI Spec is version 1.2a, with version HDMI 1.3 on it's way. It is expected that, sometime in the future, NO High Definition signals will allowed to be viewed on TVs/Monitors that do NOT have HDMI inputs and that do not comply with the specification. HDMI and other forms of and (DRM), may prevent you from being able to view high definition content on your HD equipment. BE VERY CAREFUL THAT WHAT YOU BUY WILL WORK WITH THE COMING (Digital Rights Management) RESTRICTIONS. SEE ALSO: , , and . I would only buy an HDTV set that has at least Two inputs. It MUST have one HDMI input, or you may not be able tO view High Definition video content If you are buying an HDTV set, ensure that it can display at least , preferably, . Because no movie is shot at a , there will still be black bars at the top and bottom of the screen on any movie that isn't cropped to fit 1.78:1, or if the TV (display) doesn't have the ability to adjust the display to compensate. The of a standard definition TVs (also called "") is (4 by 3). Most movies are now shot at 1.85.1, and are cropped to get 1.78:1 (HDTV aspect ratio). Other movies, shot at 2.35:1 are usually not cropped to 1.78:1. The HDTV aspect ratio of 1.78:1 was choosen as a compromise between the typical 1.85:1 (Movies) and the older, standard TV ration of 1.33:1. Movies (DVDs) marked "ANAMORPHIC" are video enhanced for Widescreen TVs (1.78:1). Many news shows now shoot in 1080p (typically 24 or 30 frames per second refresh rate), but the highest HD broadcast and pre-recorded content is 1080i (4/2006). Digital recording is done a , and filrm is recorded at . One of the (usual) tasks of is to convert from one pseed to another. Smart Scalers can detect the rate (24 or 30 fps) at which the video content was originally shot, and using this knowledge, automatically adjust the video to create a better looking picture. HDTVs are now being sold. Some are actually outputting 1080i at twice the speed, which may, acording to Digital TV and Sound, cause a less bright picture. Note that my PERSONAL preference (some agree with me, some don't) is Toshiba, then Samsung, for the larger HDTVs (4/2006). Be certain to check on the reliability of sets sold by a specific vendor. Another format found on some TVs sold in the US is: "14:9" (centered). 14:9 video pillarboxed inside a 16:9 frame or letterboxed inside a 4:3 frame". 14:9 is a BBC invention, and has not caught in the US. There is a defined, but unused, part of the HDTV specification that would allow more information about the HD video content to be sent along with the video, allowing HDTVs to do a much better job of automatically determining how to display the HD video content. Determining the ideal viewing Distance - . HDTVs have a , and convert incoming signals to this resolution. I suggest that you purchase a true HDTV, and not an Enhanced Definition () TV. Your HDTV's native resolution will either be interlaced (i) or () [p]), and incoming video signals will either be or interlaced, if needed. Don't lose any sleep over the concepts of interlaced or deinterlaced (Progressive scan) - just ensure that you like the video quality (take a test drive). The same hardware that does the interlacing or de-interlacing often handles the job of creating additional video detail ( / upscaling) or / downsizing the incoming video signal to match the characteristics of the video display. Hardware that does this conversion is usually called a scaler, and scalers may be built into your video display, or sold as a stand-alone unit. MY RECOMMENDATIONS FOR HDTV EQUIPMENT: ====================================== 1] BE VERY CAREFUL THAT WHAT YOU BUY WILL WORK WITH THE COMING (Digital Rights Management) RESTRICTIONS. SEE ALSO: . 2] Ensure that the TV/Monitor has at least one HDMI input, or you may not be able to view High definition video content. More HDMI inputs is better! 3] If you are buying an HDTV set, ensure that it can display at least , preferably, . 4] Buy only a formatted TV/Monitor. 5] Ensure that the TV/Monitor can , so that the older video content can be well displayed on your 16x9 aspect ratio High Definition TV/Monitor. 6] I would ensure that the TV/Monitor can lower resolution video content. 7] View the proposed HDTV at a similar distance and lighting level that you will have at your house. 8] If want to you get a large screen HDTV, try to view analog (NTSC) TV signals on it, to ensure that you will be happy viewing non-digital TV signals. Some people are not happy viewing analog TV signals on large screen HDTVs with high vertical resolution. My family is very happy with even analog video on my Toshiba 72 inch DLP Widescreen. A LARGE PART OF THIS WEB PAGE IS DEVOTED TO HDTV RELATED SUBJECTS - SKIM THIS PAGE. SEE ALSO THESE TECHNOLOGIES BEING USED FOR HDTV:

HDTV Capable or Digital Ready TV sets

The terms capable and ready mean that the TV requires additional tuners or cable boxes to process Digital and possibly HD video signals. Digital Ready does NOT normally mean HD Ready.


HDTV, Related Definitions


Toshiba 72 inch DLP Rear Projection HDTVs - You may not agree

Accepts 1080p from a PC's video card (15 pin connector) Does NOT Accept 1080p from a PC's video card

HDTV REVIEWS (I know nothing about these links)

THE REST OF MY DIGITAL INFORMATION WEB PAGE 1.33:1 - Standard TV's . 1.33:1 = 4x3 = FULL SCREEN = NTSC (older, analog) screen aspect ratios. 1.37 - "Academy format" 35mm film (standard non-anamorphic full frame with sound) has an aspect ratio of 1.37 to 1. 1.50 - VistaVision (obsolete) 1.66:1 - When a film is transferred to DVD in this aspect ratio, it will have very small black bars on a standard 1.33:1 TV screen. European. Often called 1.67 1.78:1 - HDTV aspect ratio. Also called . 1.85:1 - American theatrical standard Films transferred to DVD in this ratio will have somewhat larger black bars, but still less than a third of the available space on a standard TV screen. Widely seen in the US. 2-3 Pulldown - A method of translating material originally shot at 24 frames per second (film) to 30 (really 29.97)frames per second (fps>) (digital). All movies shot on film have been shot at the rate of 24 frames per second. Digital recording is done a 30 frames per second. One of the (usual) tasks of Scalers is to convert from one speed to another. Smart Scalers can detect the rate (24 or 30 fps) at which the video content was originally shot, and using this knowledge, automatically adjust the video signal to create a better looking picture. 2.35:1 - Films on DVD in this aspect ratio will have very large black bars, roughly 40% of the available display area. Epic films and some new stuff. Also called: Scope. 2.39:1 - Anamorphic widescreen. "Academy format" 35mm film (standard non-anamorphic full frame with sound) has an aspect ratio of 1.37 to 1. 3:1:1 - Color Sampling - The Luma is sampled at a rate of 75%, and each of the two Color Componments are sampled at 1/3 the rate of the Luma signal. See also 3-2 Pulldown - An uncommon variation of 2-3 pulldown. The frame is repeated 3 times, instead of the usual 2. People who say "3-2 Pulldown" usually mean "2-3 pulldown".

3D HDTV - Information and How to Buy

Last I knew, there were THREE (3) (major), very different, Competing 3D television standards (1] Anaglyph, 2] Stereoscopic and 3] Auto-steroscopic). 3D TV sets are expected to be a large percentage of all sets shipped in 2013. NOTE: if using HDMI, HDMI 1.4a (or later) is REQUIRED to transport 3D signals. If you cable, A/V receiver, or TV uses an older HDMI standard, you will NOT be able to view 3D TV information. Of course, your TV must be able to handle 3D material. A minimum (input and output) refresh rate of 120 Hz is generally required for good 3D viewing. glasses may be sold separately. .3gp and .3g2 are used by mobile phones and are a Super-set of MP4. () 4:1:1 - Color Sampling - Consider the "4" to be 100%. The Luma is sampled at 100% and the two Color Components are sampled at 25% (each) of the Luma signal. See also 4:2:0 - The component digital video format used by DVD. There is one Cr and one Cb signal sample for every every four Y samples. See also 4:2:2 - Color Sampling - Consider the "4" to be 100%. The Luma is sampled at 100% and the two Color Componets are sampled at 50% (each) of the Luma signal. See also 4x3 - Old style, NTSC TV screen proportions, 4x wide by 3x high. Also called: 1.33:1 = 4x3 = FULL SCREEN = NTSC (older, analog) screen aspect ratios. 4:4:4 - Color Sampling - Each signal is sampled at 100% and all three signals are sampled at the same rate. See also 4K - A new standard for digital displays. 4K is a display resolution of 4,096 x 2,160 pixels (8.8 mega-pixels). Manufacturers have been demoing a 4K signal allowing the display of four simultaneous 1080p pictures. A 4K movie would not even fit on a 50GB blu-ray DVD - it would probably require a 300GB DVD (does not currently exist). While 4K has more picture content than HD, it is NOT considered . The maximum resolution for HD is , far less than either 4K or 8K. Well, that has changed - 4K HD is now called "Ultra HD", "UHDTV" or "Ultra High Definition". Hmmm - I'm also seeing 4K called: 3840 x 2160 resolution. Note that in 4K, the first number is the Horizontal Resolution, whereas . Studios have agreed on both 4K and 2K standards for digital movies. 2K and 4K projectors have already been installed in some theaters. 4K (now called Ultra HD) SETS WILL BE RELEASED IN 2012: LG, Sharp, Sony and others. UD (Ultra-definition TV) starts at (resolution) and includes (2/2012). Currently there is no 4K nor 8K content, except for Digital cinema video, but UD TVs and some Blu-Ray players can to quasi-4K resolution. 5K - 5K is Apples new High resolution. Apple does some manipulation to create a 5K dispaly from 4K of data. 5.1 - 5.1 Surround Sound - consists of 5 full range speakers (2 front mains, 1 front center channel and 2 rear surrounds) along with a low frequency effects channel (the .1). Most DVDs (1/2006) are encoded in either DTS 5.1 or Dolby Digital 5.1. Dolby Digital is supposed to mean Dolby Digital 5.1 or 6.1 Surround Sound. 525/60 - 525 lines per frame, 60 interlaced fields - the analog NTSC TV spec. 6.1 - 6.1 Surround Sound - Adds (to 5.1) a center rear, to make transitions more natural. 7.1 - 7.1 Surround Sound - Has three front speakers, two surrounds at about the same location as the listener and two rear surrounds. There are no 7.1 encoded movies yet (1/2006), so the receiver has to decode it from 5.1 or 6.1 sources. Dolby Digital EX allows 7.1 sound. 7.1 will be available on some Blu-Ray DVDs. 7.2 - 7.2 Surround Sound 8.1 - 8.1 Surround Sound. and the latest audio formats for and High Definition will contain 8.1 surround sound. 8K - HD resolutions of 7680 x 4320 While 8K has more picture content than HD, it is NOT considered . The maximum resolution for HD is , far less than either 4K or 8K. 8K TV is coming, with the Tokyo 2020 Olympics promised to be the first major 8K TV transmission. ... UD (Ultra-definition TV) starts at (resolution) and includes (2/2012). 9.1 - 9.1 - Dolby Pro Logic IIz Introduces 9.1 Sound 9.2 - Front L & R Center: Surround L & R Surround Back L & R Front High & Wide - These are the two new channels beyond the "7". The ".2" is for independent left and right subwoofer zones 15 pin VGA - The standard computer VGA connector for computer monitors. Also called: an and D-sub 15, There is even a mini sub D15 connector. VGA is being phased out as a computer monitor standard. 16x9 - HDTV's 1.78 aspect ratio. See also aspect ration. 24 fps - All movies recorded on film are recorded at 24 frames per second (fps. Digital recording is done at 30 frames per second. If viewing video recorded on film, but viewed on a Digital TV, the video image needs to be converted from 24 frames per second, to the faster 30 frames per second. One of the usual duties of a is to make this conversion. 30 fps - Video recorded digitally is recorded at 30 frames per second (fps). 330 lines of is about all you can expect from an broadcast (viewing an analog [not Digital] TV station) 480i - 480 vertical lines of video content - NOT an HDTV format. Standard (Definition) TV () has 480 lines of vertical resolution and is named "480i" (at its very best - typical over-the-air SD signals are about 330 lines of vertical resolution. "480i" is also referred to as component video quality. The best source of 480i video is the DVD. With other 480i sources, results may vary. The trouble with 480i is that it was not designed for TVs larger than 19 inches. 480p - 480 vertical lines of video content. Some DVD players can upconvert to 480p. 720p - 720 vertical lines of (NON-interlaced) video content. 720p is the lowest quality, true HDTV format. 960x540 - If Digital Rights Management () is used to force (down-rezz) of signals carried by non- cables, 960x540 is the expected result, but you could also get a blank screen. Earlier rumors stated that down-rezz would result in 480p, 480i, or a blank screen (on some monitors). 1080i - 1080 lines of vertical video resolution - this IS an HDTV format. 1080i and/or 5.1 audio needs closer to a 3GHz. CPU - I don't know about needed multi-core CPU speeds. 1080p - 1080 lines of vertical (NON-laced video content - this exceeds an HDTV format. HDTVs with 1080p are now available, 1080p computer monitors are (5/2007) now at Costco (in the mainstream). Currently, 5/2007, there is no method of creating true 1080p TV (without upscaling, also known as upconverting / up-converting), although this situation will change. 1080p Prosumer video cameras are becoming (5/2007) available. 1080p - is 1920 horizontal lines by 1080 progressive lines of video display. If you get 1080p, ensure that you are getting 1920 horizontal lines of resolution. Some 1080p sets actually process the signal as 1080i, drop half the input data, and re-generate this data by computer interpolation, then outputing the picture at twice normal speed (see the next paragraph). Texas Instruments current (12/2005) crop of 1080p light engines don't actually have a grid of 1920 x 1080. Instead they use half that many. Each frame is interlaced horizonatally. The TV displays alternate columns of pixels at a time, but twice as quickly as the original frame so that your eyes don't notice (Digital TV and Sound, Winter, 2005.

AAC - Advanced Audio Coding

AAC is a compressed audio format. Can be or for full quality. Also contains DRM to prevent playback on systems in the case of purchased music. AIFF is just a sound format that predates AAC, MP3, etc. It is often associated with recording high quality sounds or low quality sounds, depending on what sampling rate you choose. Neither one is inherently low or high quality. Of course, if you like the sound, what else really matters. .aac files are raw aac audio data (not encapsulated in MP4). () .

AACS - Advanced Access Control System

A specification for guarding next-generation optical-media content created by the film, electronics, and software industries. Note, Only the not-yet-released Windows Vista operating system will allow you to play DVDs with AACS on your Windows PC. AACS could require that only equipped with a (digital) , connector could view , and video formats. HDTVs without an HDMI connector, could be forced to view only (component video) formats, or , not HDTV formats, or perhaps even get a blank screen. Hmm - later AACS articles another states that the enforced downsize would be 960x540 (or a blank screen). Not all monitors can handle 960x540. AACS was developed by IBM, Intel, Microsoft, Matsushita, Sony, Toshiba, Walt Disney and Warmer Brothers. Studios claim that AACS won't be used until the year 2011.


Now called Dolby Digital 5.1 (Surround Sound) 5.1 audio needs closer to a 3GHz. CPU - I don't know about needed multi-core CPU speeds.

Active Matrix LCD Display

Active Matrix LCD displays generally have a brighter, sharper display, and with their wider viewing angle than Displays, Active Matrix computer Displays can be seen by more than one person. Because there are more transistors in an Active Matrix display, there is more of a chance for dead pixels. There are tricks used to increase the lifespan of of a pixel.


AMLCD = Active Matrix Liquid Crystal Display. TFT LCD = Thin film transistor (active) liquid crystal display.

Adobe RGB 1998

See also: See also:

Aero - graphics card spec - a Windows Vista option

Microsoft has defined a new class of Windows Graphics Cards, called "Aero". Microsoft Lists five quantities that a Windows Aero graphics card must have/do: 1] Run Direct-X 9 on a GPU (not using the CPU for Direct-X functions). 2] Utilize a WDDM driver (not a .sys driver). But a WDDM driver must have (Output Protection Management) - (). 3] Support Pixel Shader 2.0 4] Utilize at least 32-bits of information per pixel. 5] Have . AES - Audio Engineering Society. AGC - Automatic Gain Control. Macrovision likes to mess with this, which can cause the video being viewed to become lighter and darker (not intended by the video editor, but a symptom of Macrovision).

AIE - Automatic Image Enhancement

Xerox has invented printer software that automatically adjusts small areas in a picture, at a time, to correct contrast problems. This technique is called local contrast enhancement. Xerox has named their technique AIE - Automatic Image Enhancement. AIE will soon be found in xerox printers, and may be included in image enhacement software. AIFF - Audio Interchange File Format - created by Apple computer. AIFF is a sound format that predates AAC, MP3, etc. Aliasing - A distortion in the video or audio reproduction caused by having a signal's frequency being more than twice the sampling frequency.


Active-Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diode. A stack of organic polymers, including layers of conductive and emissive layers are deposited on a Thin-Film Transister (TFT> substrate (used in some displays). each pixel is controlled by from one to four transistors. The TFT technology provides the best resolution of all the flat-panel techniques, but . My friend just bought an LG 65 inch amoled HDTV - price over $ 12,000 - 7/18/2018. AMOLED is the most likely form of to be widely used in TVs.


An analog or analog signal is any variable signal continuous in both time and amplitude. The analog signal can have any value, whereas Digital signals are either an ON ('1') or OFF (0') (discrete signals)

Analog Hole

Bill H.R. 4569 would require all analog recording and converting equipment to detect via the use of . anamorphic - video enhanced for Widescreen TVs (aspect ratio 1.78:1 [also called "16 by 9"]) ANAMORPHIC FAT - makes objects on the screen appear to be widened. Angle - Some DVDs allow the viewer to change the angle of view, as though the camera is moved to a different position.


I know nothing about these sites (Caveat Emptor) APS - Analog Protection System

ARccOS - DVD-Video Copy Control

Sony's DVD-Video Copy Control. ARccOS is based on producing unreadable sectors on the disc in the similar manner to the Audio CD copy protections. In the strictest sense these DVDs aren't actually DVD Video discs, but crippled discs that happen to work on most DVD players. ARccOS works by creating unreadable sectors on a DVD similarly to the method used to protect audio CDs. These DVDs do not follow the DVD spec and I believe that I read that Sony was being sued for calling their ARccOS protected DVDs, "DVD's", as they violate the DVD specification. Sony apparently started using ARccOS in 2004, and has supposedly moved on (Feb, 2006) to and other forms of Digital Rights Management (). However, states that some DVDs Sony released in April, 2006, use AAccOS.

ASA - Advanced Speaker Array (THX)

ASA is a proprietary THX technology which processes the sound fed to 2 side and 2 back surround sound speakers to optimize the experience.

ASF - Microsoft's proprietary audio/digital video format


The ratio of the number of horizontal scan lines vs vertical scan lines. To top off the confusion about aspect ratios, now over 85% of all new Film Movies being produced and released on DVD/Blu-ray are shot at a ratio, so even a (unless some sort of aspect ratio cropping by the TV is done) In Europe and Japan (12/2008) the 16:9 (1.78:1) aspect ratio is most broadcast (and required by law, in some cases), but, of course, there is a huge legacy of 4:3 (12:9, ) TV screens, so some broadcasters have used 14:9 for interim transmissions. The trend is certainly towards 16:9. Although there have been experiments in other aspect ratios, and 2.4:1 is still used in many blockbuster movies, only 16:9 (and legacy 4:3) is in any broadcast standard. As for existing TVs, the vast majority remain , though is already a substantial proportion. Some older widescreen LCDs (and a few other TV displays) have 5:3 (), 8:5 (, often called 16:10), and 3:2 (1.5:1) aspect ratios. Artifact - An introduced effect that was not present in the original video or audio. Artifacts are sometimes called "noise", as they have corrupted the signal. ASV - Audio Still Video - a still (not in motion) picture on a DVD-Audio disk. An ATSC (Advanced Television Standard Committee) tuner just means "an over-the-air, HDTV or digital TV tuner Note that a digital TV is not necessary an HDTV.


ATSC-H/M is a new mobile TV specification that will use a small portion of the HDTV spectrum to broadcast a simultaneous, backward-compatible, mobile TV signal (digital) for use on mobile devices. This spec is not yet (5/2007) finalized. ATV - Advanced Television. There is no standard meaning, other than ATVs have significantly better audio and video than a standard TV (SD). I believe that the term ATV is disappearing from American jargon.



Authoring - For video, this refers to the person(s) creating the video. For DVD-ROM, it usually refers to the actual software used to create the DVD-ROM. A/V - Audio Video.


A new (9/2006) HD format that uses the MPEG-4 AVC video codec for camrecorders ONLY. At this time, 10/30/2006, only Sony software can read this format. Word is Apple will update iMovie and Final Cut Pro to work with it.

AVI - Microsoft's Audio Video Interleaved

AVI seems to be on it's way out. AVR - Audio/Video Receiver. A Tuner [AM/FM, perhaps XM and HD-FM], Pre-amplifier and amplifier that can process both audio and video signals. AVRs normally contain both audio and video CODECs to decode audio and vidio signals containing surround sound, video compression and perhaps, [DRM] () information. (Automatic Voltage Regulation).


Backlights are used to increase readability in low light conditions, Bi-amping: Two schemes exist to use multiple amplifiers in a traditional two-channel audio system. You can dedicate one amp per channel [horizontal bi-amping] or dedicate one amp for the tweeter/midrange band, the other for the bass register [vertical bi-amping]. Horizontal bi-amping requires identical amplifiers. Vertical bi-amping relegates the more powerful amp to drive the left/right channel woofers while the smaller amp drives the mid/tweeter drivers. Vertical bi-amping requires a means to adjust the output levels between both amps to avoid that the more powerful amplifier will cause a tonal imbalance of bloated and excessive bass. Means for adjustments are either input level controls on one of the amps or trim pots on an external crossover. Non-identical amplifiers in vertical bi-amp schemes will add their unique sonic signature to the respective frequency range they cover. This may or may not be audible and beneficial. See also Bipolar/dipolar: A loudspeaker in which either the drivers' rear waves aren't absorbed by a cabinet but allowed to freely propagate into the room, or rear-firing drivers have been added instead. All panel loudspeakers [electrostats and planar-magnetics] radiate front and back, with all backfiring radiation out-of-phase or dipolar. Dynamic designs with both front- and rear-firing drivers can be in-phase/bipolar or out-of-phase/dipolar. Sometimes, a switch can select between either mode. In designs using only front-firing conventional dynamic drivers that are mounted into an open-backed baffle or where the rear wave exits through a tunnel, the rear-wave is naturally out-of-phase [examples of this style are speakers by Alon and the new Futures by Proac]. bit - A binary digit - the smallest piece of digital data possible. bit rate - The number of bits (data sent) measured over a specified time - also called the data rate. Bi-wiring: Speakers with dual binding post pairs can be bi-wired. This means running two pairs of speaker cables between amp and speaker. This can be done in shotgun or internal bi-wire mode. In shot-gun mode, both cable pairs remain physically separate up to the amplifier where the two plus and minus legs are tied together into a common spade or banana terminal. Internally bi-wired cables require a minimum of four conductors that are then terminated as two leads on the amp, and four leads on the speaker end. Bi-wiring electrically separates the woofer from the tweeter or mid/tweeter circuit and isolates potential back-EMF [electromotive force] from the woofer at the amp instead of bleeding back into the tweeter or mid/tweeter circuit. Bi-wirable speakers connected in standard single-wire mode must have their jumpers installed so that both the hi- and low frequency drive units receive amplifier signal. In many cases, jumpers made with the same raw wire as the chosen speaker cable will sonically outperform manufacturer-provided jumpers. The subject of bi-wiring is a disputed topic even among loudspeaker manufacturer and the presence or absence of dual terminal pairs on a loudspeaker doesn't give any indication as to the design's sonic quality. See also

Blurring (motion blur or ghosting )

1] If you have a TV, and it can not handle the fast motion of some of the action scenes, resulting in blurring at the location of the fastest action. I see this most often in LCD TVs and in some of the cheaper plasma sets. a] For gamers and fast action movies, you want an LCD monitor with a response time of 3 microsseconds, or LESS. b] Faster LCD refresh rates help decrease pizelization - more expensive LCD sets have a ACTUAL refresh rate of 120 Hz (120 times a second). Some expensive LCD rates are even using quad-rate refreshing (240 Hz), c) A lot of manufacturers are now using software to provide higher effective Refresh Rates - the software does not work as well as a tru, native, refresh rate of the same "speed".

Blu-ray - Sony's HD DVD format

DID compete with HD-DVD. NOTE: Blu-ray won the format war with HD-DVD. To top off the confusion about , now over 85% of all new Film Movies being produced and released on DVD/Blu-ray are shot at a ratio, so even a WILL have (unless some sort of aspect ratio cropping by the TV is done) Blu-ray requires new DVD stamping machinery, HD-DVD does not. 23.3 to 27 GB per a single layer disk. Multilayer disks can have Eight (8) layers, allowing a total of 200 GBs per 8-layered Blu-ray disk. Blu-ray disks come with a very strong, TDK developed polymer anti-scratch coating. Backwards compatiblity (to CD/DVDs) is optional (requires a second laser). Blueray going to 1 TB (Terra Byte of data capacity) - 10/2007. A new (5/2006), ugly problem is that withOUT at least an HDMI version 1.3, connection, your HDMI probably can't handle the high speed, high bandwith of the newer AUDIO content used by Dolby's and from either or . NOTE: Blu-ray won the format war with HD-DVD. Profile 3.0 (also known as BD-Audio): Profile 3.0 is a separate audio only player profile. Profile 3.0 has been released. Profile 2.0 (also known as BD-Live) - IS released: Profile 2.0 adds: 1] Internet-enabled features, such as downloading movie trailers. 2] 1GB of local storage capability - probably by a method to add storage MMC, Mandatory Managed Copy, lets you make at least one copy of an HD-DVD or Blu-Ray disc to send to a server or a portable player. Click for more MMC information. Dolby TrueHD (8 audio channels) is optional on Blu-Ray DVDs.

Blu-ray BD-J (BD-Java)


Wikipedia - "Boxee is a cross-platform freeware home theater PC (HTPC) program with a 10-foot user interface and social networking features designed for the living-room TV." Streaming is available, along with .


- Candela per square metre - a (video / ) measure of .


Some of us have extensive broadband coaxial cable runs (HDTV, Digital TV, TV and Road Runner). We end up splitting the cable signal a number of times and often find that our signal strength has become too low for good TV viewing or Internet connections. Therefore, a lot of us are using (amplifies both analog and digital signals with a frequency range of 1 GHtz. This amplifier can even be powered via the coax cable. There is currently (7/10/2007) a rebate on this amplifier, so I suspect that it is being phased out. Rumour is, that a new model that exceeds the current 1 GHtz frequency range is coming soon. To check the signal level your ISP is providing to your Motorola Cable Modem: Motorola's Cable Modem Diagnostics and Signal Level:


Using additional exposure to selected areas to make those areas DARKER in the picture (pictures from film). Using a laser to burn "pits" in CDs or DVDs, ie, a DVD burner uses a laser to create content on a CD or DVD.


Burr-Brown was a significant leader in signal processing IC creation. I remember them most for the innovative sound processing algorithms.


Since cableCARDs are superceded, You do NOT want to buy a device that used CableCARDs (My OPINION) (as they may disappear) - instead, you want a device that uses the newer "". Televisions that support CableCARD should be labeled by the manufacturer as "digital cable ready", or DCR. HOWEVER, it is taking a heckova long time for TRU2WAY to become available (10/2012). There are two versions of CableCARDs: S-CARD Single-Stream -for a single stream (can only view/record one channel at a time) M-CARD Multi-Stream - For viewing/recording more than one channel at a time. What card type (Tru2Way? CableCARD?) does Your cable company support? Will it continue to support CableCARDs (I doubt it - they want you to spend money on interactive purchases). CableCARD is an option for digital cable ready TVs that allows the User to get (rent?) a card from their cable company to decode digital cable signals (no cable box needed). NOTE that some TVs have problems accepting an area's given CableCARD. Note also that not using a cable box means (PRE CableCARD 2.0) that you can't access the cable company's on-screen channel guide, can't access video on demand (pay-per-view), and don't always have dual tuners (so that you can watch one show while you record another show). A CableCard slot is a PCMCIA slot. NOTE; Many newer Digital/HDTV TVs use a , which allows viewers to view Digital NON Pay Channels (which are not encrypted). Only CableCARD VERSION 2.0 (or later) allows user interaction (for example, allows you to order a movie). Previously once a cable company invested in the Head end equipment they were locked into the 's (Set Top Box) that were compatible. CableCARD changes all that. CableCARD 2.0 has been superseded by , also from CableCARD labs. CableCARD 1.0 supports only a single MPEG2 transport stream; i.e. single digital tuner. The Single Stream card (S-Card) was previously called POD; "Point of Deployment". It exists a special variant of PCMCIA. When power is applied the card, it will look and act like a 16-bit PC memory card, albeit a very small one. Only during configuration can the host determine that it is an S-Card. Once the card has been identified, the host and S-Card change personalities and the interface changes from PCMCIA to S-Card. The identification and configuration step is required to allow graceful rejection of none S-Card's since this is a PCMCIA interface.

CableCARD 2.0

Supports multiple MPEG2 transport streams, i.e. multiple tuners. A unique card detect features allow the host to identify the card as an M-Card before power is supplied to the card. Because of this, the card does not have to support the PCMCIA interface. The M-Card has the same physical form-factor as the S-Card but a significantly different electrical interface. The change from S-Card to M-Card is much more than a simple firmware change. TW rented to me a SCIENTIFIC ATLANTA PKM800 Multi Stream Cable Card - 3/2012 Kind of odd - considering that the SDV adapter, at least for Tivo, plays no role in actually tuning the channel. The ONLY thing it does is resolve what frequency for the tuner to change to when first tuning. The channel map is supplied to the Tivo with SDV channels designated as such.. When the Tivo tunes one of those channels, it talks to the adapter via USB. The adapter in turn contacts the headend to find where the frequency is on the SDV carousel.. And then the adapter relays that info, again via USB, to the Tivo. The Tivo then tunes the frequency and the CableCARD takes care of conditional access. At least that is my understanding of it. You dont even need any RF cabling from the adpater to the Tivo -- the only thing required from the adapter to the Tivo is a USB cable, and the adapter of course needs a cable line to send its requests upstream. Lack of tru2way presence at this year's CES, but the rollout at headends across the country ... Time-Warner is NOT listed as having licensed tru2way (3/7/2010).

Tru2Way - Supersedes all CableCARDs

Tru2Way is the new name for OCAP (OpenCable Applications Platform). Because not even CableCARD 2.0 provided complete two-way interaction, CableCARD Labs was forced to come up with another solution, which they call Tru2Way, due out in 2009. I do NOT believe that you should buy a device supporting only CableCARD (this is my OPINION) as CableCARD support may disappear [the cable company wants you to buy products interactively, thus they may want to support only Tru2Way]. CHECK WITH YOUR CABLE COMPANY TO SEE WHAT THEY SUPPORT, WHAT THEY PLAN TO SUPPORT. Check out for more details and other related information. BACK TO CableCARD INFORMATION: has inked a deal to use CableCARD. CableCARD 2.0 - two-way CableCard products, known as Interactive Digital Cable Ready.

CABLES (Wires)

Calibrating and Testing Video and Audio Setups w/Test CDs/DVDs

Obviously, any technique created after the DVD was made, will not be on the DVD. I own a few of these. My professionals recommend these Audio/Video Setup CDs/DVDs: Avia - Guide to Home Theater (Ovation Software) - DVD - 1999 Audio Calibration Video Calibration Seems to be mostly 5.1 Includes Blue, Green and Red filters for adjusting tint on your (front projector) video system Digital Video Essentials (DVE)(for NTSC) - Optimize Your Home Entertainment System - DVD - 2001 (seems to be an updated version of: "Video Essentials") I now own this one, and I like it's capabilities a lot. Dolby Digital Dolby Digital Surround-EX DTS Audio Test Signals Dolby and DTS 5.1 Audio Test Signals Dolby and DTS 6.1 Good tutorials Comprehensive Audio and Video test signals Includes Blue filter for adjusting tint on your video system (newer , not front projectors, don't usually need adjusting - CHECK BEFORE YOU BUY) Video Essentials - 1996 Available Subtitles: English, Spanish Available Audio Tracks: English (Dolby Digital 5.1), English (Dolby Digital 2.0 Surround), Spanish (Dolby Digital 5.1), Spanish (Dolby Digital 2.0 Surround), Japanese (Dolby Digital 5.1), Japanese (Dolby Digital 2.0 Surround) Includes Blue, Green and Red filters for adjusting tint on your (front projector) video system (newer , not front projectors, don't usually need adjusting - CHECK BEFORE YOU BUY) Video essential still frame presentation Sound level meter setup Web links Other such DVDs, but not mentioned by my Professionals (could be very good) are: (Details given are from ) Maxell DVD Lens Cleaner and Home Theater Set-up Tools included about at Best Buy Audio and Video Tests. Dolby 5.1 setup eight languages Sound and Vision Home Theater Tune-up - 2001) ISF HDTV Calibration Wizard DVD - (by) Monster - 2006 ? includes WMV HD (720p) with 7.1 digital audio. Easy-to-use live video shots help you calibrate your TV without complicated test patterns. Discwasher 1509 Home Theater Calibration Disc - 2003 ? The tests enable you to correct monitor , contrast, sharpness, color and tint. Audio calibration tests in Dolby Digital and DTS help you achieve the optimum audio experience (phase test, sweep test, level set-up and LFE subwoofer calibration). Outstanding high-definition audio and video demo tracks illustrate the full potential of your home theater system. Ultimate DVD - Home Theater Fine Tuning Made Simple - 10/2005

CAV - Constant angular velocity

The rotation of the disk is kept at a constant speed, thus causing the read/write data head travels a longer distance as it moves away from the center of the disk.

CBR - Constant Bit Rate

Data compressed into a stream with a fixed data rate. Thus while the rate is constant, the quality, due to the need for more or less compression to maintain this constant bit rate, is allowed to vary. CCI - Copy Control Information. Denotes if the data is allowed to be copied.

CD-ROMs, CDs, MO7 and Orum Storage Devices

PLAYING/USING PROGRAMS wo/HAVING TO INSERT THE CD-ROM 1) a lot of software/games do not install everything from the CD onto your hard drive, so whenever you wish to use the software, you must insert the CD-ROM into the drive. 2) There is a way to avoid this problem. 3) You need two pieces of software: A) one that can generate disc images from your CD-ROM, and B) another that can mount these images to a virtual CD-ROM drive. 4) Go to (200 KB). (for other, similar tools, , 5) Installation is easy and results in two new icons on the desktop 6) Do NOT FORGET to assign a fairly high drive letter to your new virtual drive in Device Manager, so it won't later interfer with drive letter assignments for removable drives, network drives.,,,, 7) As with any driver that tries to pull a fast one on Windows, DAEMON tools might conflict with other drivers on your PC. If you experience mysterious lockups when using the program, check the support forums on the DAEMON tools web site, and keep an eye out for program updates, which are frequent. 8) Another option, check out the huge database of patches at You'll be able to download "No CD" patches and executables for just about any game out there. That is, for any game out there that you already own, naturally.

CD Music Burning & Audio Grabbers

CD+G - Compact audio disk plus graphics. CD-DA - Copmact Disk Digital Audio. CD-i - CD Interactive - provides interactive home entertainment. CD-Plus - An enhanced CD format using stamped multisession technology. CD-R - A CD format that allows data to be recorded (only) once. CD-ROM - Compact disc read-only memory (pre-recorded before purchase). CD-ROM XA - A version of CD allowing the interleaving of audio and video. CDV - (obsolete [no more Laserdiscs]) - Mixes CD audio with a Laserdisc's video. cDVD - DVD video content stored on a CD or CD-R/RW. Also called a mini DVD. Few players can play a cDVD.

CD / DVD Burning Software - Commercial

The most common names in commercial DVD or CD creation software are: CDBurnerXP - CDBurnerXP is a free application to burn CDs and DVDs, including Blu-Ray and HD-DVDs. It also includes the feature to burn and create ISOs. 7 - I've been told that NERO 7 will NOT allow to create backups of your own, purchased music CDs that employ the copy protection flag. I understand that NERO does not want to help music pirates, who does, but since NERO 7 seems to preclude making a backup copy of your own purchased, music CD, so you can use it in the car and (the same copy) at work (or for the kids), without causing any wear and tear on your original purchase, which is stored safely away, and not played: I CAN NOT RECOMMEND NERO 7, Unless you need something only NERO has. I've also read that NERO 6.6 does NOT have this problem. Easy Media Creator 8 Suite - I do NOT know if the latest version of Roxio, Roxio Easy media Creator 8 Suite, allows you to create one backup copy of your purchased, copyrighted, music CD or not - you might want to find out. I've heard that Easy Media Creator 7.5 does NOT have this problem. CGMS - Copy Generation Management. Also called Copy Guard Management. CGMS/A is added to analog signals, such as line 21 of an NTSC frame. CGMS/D is added to digital signals, for example, to .

CEC - Consumer Electronics Control

While CEC can be an actual data bus, it is becoming better known as a feature of .

CinemaDNG - Open Digital Cinema File Format

Cinema 21:9 aspect ratio

"The 2012 Philips 56PFL9954H or Cinema 21:9 aspect ratio is one of a new breed of HDTVs designed to playback movies in their native ultra-wide aspect ratio. It eliminates the letterbox bars which usually occupy the top and bottom of the screen so users can enjoy a more cinematic viewing experience." "A 21:9 TV more closely mimics the 2.35:1 aspect ratio used in many movies, so you will not see black bars above and below the image, as you do on a 16:9 TV. Vizeo will sell 21:9 TVs in 2012" - Consumer Reports CMI - Content Management Information


An acronym for "co der/ dec oder." CODECs are used to encode and (usually) decode audio (or video) signals to allow more dynmmic range to be recorded on the media (CD, DVD, tape) without causing noticable distortion, and, in the case of audio codecs, to enable spatial placement of sound (i.e., it enable us to hear surround sound seemingly coming from different locations. Some audio codecs can also convert digital audio to/from analog sound. Some examples of audio codecs are and . Some examples of Video codecs are , , .

Color Depth

The number of levels of color that can be represented by a pixel. The color depth of MPEG video in DVD is 24 bits. Color Depth is sometimes expressed by the number of colors that can be displayed.

Color Difference

A pair of video signals that contain the color components minus the component


Color sampling is similar to color compression. The humans can pick out details better in luma (black and white) than in color. Because of this fact, it is possible to reduce the color information in a recorded color picture without sacraficing the picture quality. Color Sampling is usually given as a set of three numbers representing the luma sampling and the sampling of the two color components, for example, . The Color Components are the color difference components (red and blue) derived from the original signal. The RGB video signal is converted into (Y = Luma, = Blue portion of the signal, and = the Red portion).

Component Video

consists of three video cables, sometime refered to as - they are usually colored , and . Component video can carry a better video signal than S-Video, but is not quite as good as or . COMPOSITE VIDEO (CVBS) will give you a slightly better signal than the standard 75 ohm Coax cable. A Composite-Video cable is a single video cable with RCA plugs on its ends. CVBS is an acronym for Color, Video, Blank and Sync, the four components of Composite Vide.


The process of removing redundancies in digital data to reduce the amount of data that must be stored or transmitted. See also compression and Compression.

Condensation Algorithm


CONVERTERS - Audio, Video, Resolution, Scalers,...

/ CONVERSION: I have two friends who own these great Octavia Inc. switchers - one guy owns the (the HDMI Switch with TOSLINK Audio Routing [see above] will switch and merge Toslink Audio and DVI ouput into HDMI) and the other guy owns the . See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also:

CONVERTER BOXES - view Digital signals on old Analog TVs

In February, 2009, Analog TVs will no longer be able to receive TV signals (as all TV signals are mandated to become Digital signals). The US government did provide up to Two coupons per family, to be used to help defer the cost of purchasing a box that will enable your old TV to receive signals (THIS APPLIES ONLY TO OVER-THE-IAR- TV SIGNALS). CONSUMER'S REPORT (see link below), reviewed these three conversion units: Magnavox TB100MW9: I found this at Walmart for $ 49.87 Zenith DTT900: I found this at for just under $ 60. "LG" owns Zenith. Insignia NS-DXA1: A brand, CR think's it is the same as the Zenith DTT900. READ THE CR REVIEW. Now CR has updated their review, and stated that they did not see any Component signal problems on the Zenith, but DID see that problem on the Insignia unit. Based on the CR report, only, I would recommend the: Zenith DTT900. Best Buy HHgreGG Radio Shack Sears Holdings Corp. and its Kmart outlets Target Sam's Club YOU CAN probably get TV Converters anywhere that sells TVs.


I list some of the more, in use, common methods here: AACS - Advanced Access Control System. Analog Hole - ARccOS - Sony's ARccOS copy protection. CD Music Burning - CPPM - Content Protection for Prerecorded Media. CPRM - Content Protection for Recordable Media. DRM - Digital Rights Management. DVD Conversion - DVD Security and Anti-Theft - HDCP - High-Bandwidth Digital Content Protection. HDMI / DVI - HDMI - Will be a REQUIRED connection for viewing HDTV signals IF, certain AACS author content media proection "locks" are enabled on your DVD or HD video source. Both Blu-Ray and HD-DVD formats will support AACS, and could have this viewing restriction enabled. HDMI 1.3 (released 6/22/2006) will be required to view the High Definition video content from both and DVDs. Key2audio - Another of Sony CD and DVD copy protection schemes. MediaMax - Another root-kit DRM used by Sony in 2006. MMC Mandatory Managed Copy, lets you make at least one copy of an HD-DVD or Blu-Ray disc to send to a server or a portable player. Click for more MMC information. OPM - Micorosoft's Five flavors of Output Protection Management. secuROM - Sony's secuROM CD and DVD copy protection. SPDC - Self-Protecting Digital Content. A method whereby your HD playback device could be permanently disabled. VEIL - Prevents analog devices from processing video from HD devices. Video Conversion - Watermark - A means of embedding hidden but detectable data. CPPM - Content Protection for Prerecorded Media CPRM - Content Protection for Recordable Media

Content Protection System Architecture (CPSA)

CPSA is supposed to promote compatibility between various protection schemes. It can be argued that CPSA and other associated content protection measures do away with your right to make a backup copy of your purchased media ()

CRT - Cathode Ray Tube DISPLAYS

CSS - Content Scrambling System CVBS - Composite Video.

CVI - Component Video Input

Philip's HD Component Video Input enables display of full 1080i high definition video and 480p video (both are HDTV formats) from digital sources. D/A and A/D - Digital to Analog converters, and vice-versa. Also called a DAC DBS - digital broadcast satellite.

DCDi - Directional Correlation Deinterlacing

A digital method invented by to improve the quality of low resolution images. See also . DCR - Digital Cable Ready - Requires a and can then receive HDTV signals over your cable. DCT - Discrete cosine transform. DCT is a mathematical process used when encoding MPEG video.


A circuit that decodes compressed audio or video, A decoder may also be used to convert from one type of signal to another.


Essentialy a . See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also:


Digital signals are either an ON ('1') or OFF (0') (discrete signals), as opposed to .


Digital8 is the digital version of the analog video recording format. Both Digital8 and Hi8 are obsolete, being replaced by High Definition () recording.

Digital-to-Analog Converter Settop Boxes (DACS)


A Microsoft standard used in Windows, developed to playback video and audio.

Direct View (TVs)

Images are displayed directly on the display media, such as a TV tube or LCD display. These sets have a fixed-pixel screen, always displaying the same number of pixels. Disc - same as a Disk. Some people, especial the English, use the term disc instead of disk. Other poepl use the term disc for disks that can be removed from their drive, such as floppy disks, CDs, DVDs and Optical Disks. disc key - Used to decrypt/encrypt a title key on DVD-Video disks. Disk - same as a .


DisplayPort is a new (5/2006) digital display interface standard sponsored by the VESA (Video Electronics Standards Association). It defines a new license-free state-of-the-art digital audio/video interconnect, intended to be used primarily between a computer and its display-monitor, or a computer and a home-theater system. DisplayPort seems to be competing with - Unified Display Interface display rate - The number of times per second the video image is re-displayed. DTCP - Digital Transmission Content Protection

D-Terminal - an analog video connector

D1 - D2 - D3 - D4 - D5 -


DLNA - Digital Living Network Alliance

DLNA is comprised of over 250 A/V companies to promote the the DLNA Standards - IEC 62481-1 and IEC 62481-2. DLNA is supposed to help all of your A/V devices to smoothly send A/V to anywhere in your home. THE technology alliance for connected devices and streaming media throughout the home. Discover the freedom and flexibility that DLNA and VidiPath can bring to your media consumption experience. DNLA was founded by a group of consumer electronics companies to develop and promote a set of interoperability guidelines for sharing digital media among multimedia devices. "DLNA separates multimedia devices into 10 certified classes subdivided into three broad categories: Home Network Devices (PCs, TVs, AV receivers, game consoles), Mobile Handheld Devices (smartphones, tablets, digital cameras), and Home Infrastructure Devices (routers and hubs). A device’s class is determined by its functional capabilities—whether it stores, controls, or plays media—rather than the type of product it is. So it’s possible (even common) for a device to fall into more than one class. Some DLNA-certified TVs, for example, can be classified as both a Digital Media Player—meaning it can locate and play media from other devices—and a Digital Media Renderer—because media can be pushed to it by an external controlling device." - techhive.com "DLNA is based on Universal Plug and Play. APPLE products are NOT DLNA compatible. DLNA-compatible devices use UPnP to communicate, and there are three classes of DLNA devices: Home Network Devices, Mobile Handheld Devices and Home Infrastructure Devices. The first category encompasses media servers, AV receivers, TVs, consoles and tablets; the second category includes smartphones and media tablets; and the third category covers routers and hubs. DLNA Certification means it'll work DLNA Certified devices have been tested to ensure that they'll play nicely with other DLNA devices. Non-certified devices can be made DLNA compatible with software (firmware), so for example PCs can be DLNA servers if they're running version 11 or later of Windows Media Player. DLNA Premium Video should make streaming simple In January, the DLNA added a new standard: DLNA Premium Video, or the not very short DLNAPV for short. The idea is to make it easier to share copy-protected content around the house by enabling a single device to act as a hub for all your other ones. For example, your set-top box might be a DLNAPV device, and it could then stream copy-protected content such as movies or TV programmes to your other, non-DLNAPV devices. The technology has been developed by partners including Microsoft, Sony and Broadcom, although as yet no DLNAPV-certified devices have been announced. DLNA is everyone but Apple That's how it looks, anyway: the current DLNA membership reads like a Who's Who of the tech world, with big hitters including Intel, HP, Motorola, HTC, Microsoft, Samsung, LG and Panasonic making products that will happily communicate with each other. Apple has decided not to join that particular party. DLNA and AirPlay won't talk to each other Choosing a home entertainment platform is a bit like picking sides in a battle: there are two rival standards, DLNA and AirPlay. Where DLNA works across thousands of different devices, AirPlay (and AirPrint) is more selective and only works on Apple or Apple-approved products. That's the official line, anyway, but there are ways around it: apps such as AirSync bring AirPlay streaming to Android phones, while apps such as media:connect offer DLNA on iOS." - quoted from techradar.com %%%%%%%%% "DLNA is an industry-wide standard for sharing data on a home network. If you have router a in your home then you have a network and can therefore use DLNA-certified products on it, and if you have wi-fi then you can do it without wires." "The home network over which the content is shared can be either a wireless (wi-fi) network or a wired, ethernet (LAN) network." "It’s important to note that DLNA devices have the feature built-in and that there aren’t any DLNA adaptors available. This means that if your mobile phone isn't DLNA-enabled then it simply won't work on the DLNA network. Of course you'll still be able to connect it to wi-fi, but you won’t be able to share the content on the handset using this method." Read more: http://www.which.co.uk/technology/tv-and-dvd/guides/what-is-dlna/#ixzz1mCLPwWBl Consumer Champions Which? Under Creative Commons License: Attribution Non-Commercial Read more: http://www.which.co.uk/technology/tv-and-dvd/guides/what-is-dlna/#ixzz1mCLBeNKU Consumer Champions Which? Under Creative Commons License: Attribution Non-Commercial Read more: http://www.which.co.uk/technology/tv-and-dvd/guides/what-is-dlna/#ixzz1mCKxcEwd Consumer Champions Which? Under Creative Commons License: Attribution Non-Commercial

DLP - Digital Light Projector

An type Invented by Texas Instruments. DLP is now (September, 2006) Ten years old. DLP currently (9/2006) hsa more than 50% of the Projection TV market. New DLP chipsets (late 2006) are using SIX-COLORS - they added Cyan, Magenta and Yellow to the usual Red, Green and Blue - ought to be outstanding. Of course LED instead of mirrors DLP (LEDDLP) is coming on strong. Some LEDDLP sets are actually shipping (11/2006). LED DLP sets are expected to last 7 to 10 years before needed any work. DLPs sets use special bulbs, which so far, seem to last 1,000 to 2,000 hours before needing replacment.

DMCA - Digital Millenium Copyright Act

(October 1998) Processes or devices intended specifically to circumvent content protection are illegal in the USA and many other countries. DMCA also makes it illegal to discuss how to defeat copy protection.

DOCSIS 3.0 - speeds of up to 50 Mbps with Quad QAM channels

DOCSIS 3.0 hardware is available. Time-Warner in Raleigh, NC is now using DOCSIS 3. NOTE: Your througput on a DOCsis 3.0 modem will usually be limited to what your . I am using the Motorola SB6141 DOCsis 3.0 Cable Modem. Throughput doubled over my SB5110 DOCsis 2.0 Cable Modem - the SB6141 also has a 1GigE Ethernet network connection. Motorola SB6141 Cable Modem Product Description Motorola's easy-to-use SB6141 SURFboard DOCSIS 3.0 Cable Modem unlocks the potential of offering innovative high-bandwidth data and multimedia services to customers. Utilizing the power of DOCSIS 3.0, the SB6141 enables channel bonding of up to eight downstream channels and four upstream channels, increasing POSSIBLE data rates of over 300 Mbps for received data and over 100 Mbps when sending data (depends on what your ISP allows). The SB6141 includes an internal filter to eliminate potential interference from MoCA signals' intermodulation beats. Supports IPv4 and IPv6 to expand network addressing capabilities. Enhanced security: supports AES traffic encryption. TI calls the x4 DOCSIS 3.0 the "meat and potatoes version," and says the x8 version (100 Mbps max) won't come into play until 2010. In Japan, its 160 Mbps service costs 6,000 yen () per month. That's only a month more than the price of its basic 30 Mbps service. In the Netherlands, meanwhile, it charges 80 euros (7) for 120 Mbps service and 60 euros () for 60 Mbps. Mr. Fries said that he expected these prices would fall over time - April, 2009.

DOCSIS 2 - Fastest is 12.5 Mbps.

Time-Warner in Raleigh, NC is now DOCSIS 3.


A method of obtaining LIGHTER areas in a photograph, by masking selected areas from exposure to light (film).

DOLBY - too many formats?

Dolby Has a lot of that are used to encode and decode audio, so that the listener can hear sound coming from directions other than straight in front (can hear surround sound) . Dolby was originally designed to compress audio signals so that more dynamic range could be placed on a Cassete or Reel-to-Reel tape recording. Dolby A - older cassette usage Dolby B - older cassette usage Dolby C - older cassette usage Dolby Pro Logic II Dolby Pro Logic IIx - A newer technology enabling 6.1 or 7.1 multi-channel channel playback from 2-channel of multi-channel sources. Has Movie, Music and game modes. Dolby Volume adjusts the sound signal to compensate for the fact that the human ear hears high and low frequency sounds differently, at low volume levels. </<b>Dolby Digital (5.1 Surround Sound - previously called ) Dolby Digital is often referred to as a channel system. However, it must be noted that term "Dolby Digital" refers to the digital encoding of the audio signal, not how many channels it has. Dolby Digital can have any NUMBER OF CHANNELS - IT CAN EVEN BE MONOPHONIC. AC-3 is now called Dolby Digital 5.1 (Surround Sound) Dolby Digital EX - adds (from Dolby 5.1) a 3rd surround channel that is placed directly behind the listener, creating 6.1 from 5.1 by using a matrix decoder that derives 3 surround channels from the 2 in the original recording. Dolby Digital EX (AVR) setting should only be used with movie soundtracks recorded with Dolby Digital Surround EX. Dolby Digital Plus - a very flexible that builds off the orginal (which one is the original?) Dolby Digital technology. Dolby Digital Plus allows the content producer to have a lot of options when they are encoding the various soundtracks for their movies, so for the main track, they may chose to include a Dolby sountrack, but for bonus material, or perhaps for some sort of secondary audio, they might decide that they don't require bit-for-bit quality and therefore chose a codec that makes use of compression. Dolby THX - probably really means: "THX Surround EX", which is the implementation of decoding Dolby Digital EX.

Dolby Digital 1.0

Dolby Digital 1.0 is mono audio (single track of audio information),

Dolby Digital 2.0 = Dolby 2.0 Surround Sound

Dolby 2.0 IS AC3 (AC3 is the old name). 2.0 is stereo. What do you mean by 2.0 surround? It Means Dolby Surround (aka PL, PLII)-encoded 2.0. Dolby 2.0 interests me, as it's something I've been curious about... If 5.1 surround stands for FL, C, FR, SL, SR and ".1" for the LFE, then what does 2.0 stand for? Using the same logic as 5.1, wouldn't you think it simply means a left channel, a right channel, with ".0" representing nothing?! Yep 2.0 is just that. Left and Right. No low frequency. Though it CAN include surround information using Dolby Pro Logic. Its just not digital surround sound. what exactly is Dolby Digital 2.0? Is there a difference between this and regular stereo? Dolby 2.0 is just two channel Dolby Digital. DD can be anything from 1.0 up to 5.1. 2.0 can be stereo, or it can be that the two channels are matrix encoded for Pro Logic. Most decoders, when receiving a DD 2.0 source will give you the choice of invoking (or ), or just playing it back un-altered. Many TV broadcasts, as well as some movies via cable and satellite (HBO for example) are in DD 2.0, and should be decoded in Pro Logic. Dolby Digital 2.0 is stereo (in which or can be encoded). What's "2.0 Prologic" ? You mean... 1.) DolbyPrologic 2 2.) DolbyPrologic (2Ch) 3.) DolbyDigital 2.0 DolbyPrologic 2 is an decoding alogo. for listen 2ch audio on 5.1 systems. DolbyPrologic is nothing else than an normal stereo file (2ch with special algo.) that can be decoded with a DolbyPrologic decoder... DolbyDigital 2.0 is a DolbyDigital file like the ones on DVD's (5.1) but only in stereo (2Ch)

Dolby Digital 4.0

Dolby Digital 4.0 have discrete audio signals for the center, left, and right channels, plus a mono audio signal that is common for the surround channels.

Dolby Digital 5.0

Dolby Digital 5.0 is like Dolby Digital 5.1, but lacks a discrete audio signal for the low frequency effects channel. Dolby TrueHD - Dolby's premium audio technology. 100% - (bit-for-bit identical to the original Hollywood master. Supposed to be an 8.1 surround sound, but Dolby demoed a 14.1 system at CES 2006 - they used six speakers for different audio heights in the front. Dolby TrueHD is optional on Blu-Ray DVDs. Dolby TrueHD is an required on HD-DVDs. NOTE THAT CURRENT (version 1.2) connections can NOT handle the high bandwidth of the TrueHD . You will need HDMI version 1.3, not yet available (5/2006). Dolby Virtual Speaker - Dolby Labs has developed a way to create a fairly accurate surround experience that gives the illusion that you are listening to a complete surround speaker system, but is utilizing just two speakers and a subwoofer. Dolby Headphone - Essentially Dolby Virtual Speaker for headphones.

DOLBY for Low and Mid-FI Gear

Dolby Sound Space Expander Dolby Sound Space for Headphones Dolby Natural Bass Dolby Intelligent Volume Cotnrol Dolby Mono-to-Stereo Converter

DOLBY HDR (High Dynamic Range) - a VIDEO technique

HDR was developed by Brightside. Dolby bought Brightside to get HDR. Most LCDs are backlit by cold cathode fluorescent lamps (CCFLs), but CCFLs create a constant backlight on the screen, causing sections that should be black to be lighter than black. HDR replaces CCFLs with multiple LEDs, allowing sections of an LCD screen to be either backlit or black (not lighted) - this vastly increases the LCD's contrast ratio. HDR has already produced contrast ratios of 200,000:1, and will get better. Dolby Acquires BrightSide HDR Image Technology. SEE ALso: Lots of good examples, and FREE Photomatrix Pro software. It is fully functional and never expires, but adds a Photomatrix watermark to every HDR image that you create, until you purchase it.


DRM - Digital Rights Management

In other Words, COPY PROTECTION. I list some of the more, in use, common methods here: AACS - Advanced Access Control System. Analog Hole - ARccOS - Sony's ARccOS copy protection. Associated Press invented a text DRM for their news stories. CD Music Burning - CPPM - Content Protection for Prerecorded Media. CPRM - Content Protection for Recordable Media. DLNA - Digital Living Network Alliance. DRM - Digital Rights Management. - Digital Transmission Copy Protection - Digital Transmission Copy Protection over Internet Protocol DVD Conversion - DVD Security and Anti-Theft - HDCP - High-Bandwidth Digital Content Protection. HDMI / DVI - HDMI - Will be a REQUIRED connection for viewing HDTV signals IF, certain AACS author content media proection "locks" are enabled on your DVD or HD video source. Both Blu-Ray and HD-DVD formats will support AACS, and could have this viewing restriction enabled. HDMI 1.3 (released 6/22/2006) will be required to view the High Definition video content from both and DVDs. HDMI 1.3a is the currently released (available in stores) version. Key2audio - Another of Sony CD and DVD copy protection schemes. - now in Adobe's CS3 and in other things. MediaMax - Another root-kit DRM used by Sony in 2006. MMC Mandatory Managed Copy, lets you make at least one copy of an HD-DVD or Blu-Ray disc to send to a server or a portable player. Click for more MMC information. OPM - Microsoft's Five flavors of Output Protection Management. secuROM - Sony's secuROM CD and DVD copy protection. SPDC - Self-Protecting Digital Content. A method whereby your HD playback device could be permanently disabled. VEIL - Prevents analog devices from processing video from HD devices. Video Conversion - Watermark - A means of embedding hidden but detectable data.

DRM Removal (Legal, so they say)

PLEASE use programs LEGALLY

Tunebite 5 - Legal (so they say) DRM Removal

Doublers / Doubling (Audio)

Some subwoolfers output their very lowest frequencies at a much lower volume than their first upper harmonics, causing the listener to really hear only the first upper harmonics. This doubles the frequency of the fundamental to be reproduced. Instead of hearing a 25Hz signal, you're actually hearing its 50Hz first upper harmonic an octave higher.


In , the conversion from a higher-resolution input signal number to a lower one. For example, some DTV receivers can be set to downconvert an HDTV 1080i signal to a standard 480i signal that any TV can display. See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also:


1] Click on the US Flag 2] THEN ENSURE that you click on the: "Click to start MySPEED"

Down Mix or Downmix

To convert a multichannel audio track into a two-channel stereo track by combining the channels via Dolby.


Delibertly decreasing the amount of video resolution. and other strategies may cause this (downresoultion) problem. The expected mandatory downresolution of HD video signals carried over cables other than HDMI cables is expected to be 960x540. Earlier rumors suggested that signals would be either or . See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also:

Downsampling (also called subsampling)

To reduce spatial resolution by increasing the sample size - this results in a file or chunk of data that is smaller in size, but not as good a quality as the original. DSD - Direct Stream Digital. Sony's alternative to PCM. Used for SACDs.


Digital signal processing, used in audio for digital-to-analog conversion, surround sound decoding, speaker correction and certain digital amplifier circuits.

DTCP - Digital Transmission Content Protection

DTCP is the leading technology for protecting content sent over digital connections. Often called 5C for the companies that developed it. DTCP focuses on Firewire (IEEE 1394), but can be applied to other transmission protocols. Under DTCP, devices that are digitally connected exchange keys and authentication certificates to esablish a secure connection. Since encryption is done by the DVD player, no encryption is needed on the DVD media (sounds risky to me).

DTCP-IP = Digital Transmission Content Protection over Internet Protocol

DTCP-IP allows home networking of copy-protected cable signals DTCP-IP has been approved by both CableLabs and the Digital Living Betwork Alliance for both bidirectional (interactice) and uni-directional digital cable products.

DTS - Digital Theater Sound

DTS consists of several different that can be used to encode and decode audio signals to provide a high-quality surround sound. DTS-ES Discrete 6.1 is a true 6.1-channel format, as the back surround audio channel is discretely encoded into the DTS bitstream.

DTS-ES - DTS Extended Surround

DTS Extended Surround refers to the Digital Theater Sound's version of the new "6.1"-channel surround sound format that extends the 5.1-channel surround sound format with one (or two) additional speaker(s) located in the back of the audience (i.e., back surround channel). DTS Extended Surround (or DTS-ES for short) comes in two flavors: (1) DTS Extended Surround Matrix, or (2) DTS Extended Surround Discrete 6.1 DTS-ES Matrix is actually a 5.1-channel format with the back surround audio channel matrixed into those of the right and left surround.

DTS-HD - DTS High-Def

Agoura Hills, CA - based DTS (Digital Theater Systems, Inc.) has announced "DTS-HD Master Audio," the new trademarked brand name for its technology. Previously known as "DTS++," the DTS-HD mark will denote media, source players and decoders that are compliant with the next generation high definition disc formats, Blu-ray Disc and High Definition DVD (HD-DVD). "DTS-HD is a set of extensions to the Coherent Acoustics audio coding system, which also encompasses DTS Digital Surround, DTS-ES, and DTS 96/24. The introduction of DTS-HD will provide manufacturers and content providers with a complete range of DTS-branded technologies, incorporating lossless technology for next generation formats," (press release). DTV - Digital TV. DTV usually displays both and and come in both common aspect ratios ( and ). Note that DTV is NOT necessarily the same thing as . DV - Digital Video - Sony and JVCs format. Originally called DVC. DVB - Digital Video Broadcasting - a European standard. DVCAM - Sony's proprietary version of DV. DVCD - Double Length VCD - 100 minutes.


The DVD-R format is the most compatible with all stand-alone DVD players. NOTE: Blu-ray won the format war with HD-DVD. Warner Home Video just recently (10/2006) filed a patent to develop a triple-layer DVD disc that can contain a movie in three formats: 1] HD-DVD 2] BLU-RAY and 3] "normal" DVD. NOTE: Blu-ray won the format war with HD-DVD. Note - I believe that the Highly recommended "DVD Demystified" Book comes from this FAQ.

DVD Audio = DVD-A

A high-resolution 24bit/192kHz audio format that's based on the existing video DVD standard and allows for up to 6 channels of music. DVD-A discs are backward compatible with all video DVD players and offer audio quality superior to CD What are DVD-A and SACD? by Jagan Seshadri

DVD Burning information


If no other method is available to you, try this one

1) it is not possible to capture a screen image from your DVD, (this is possible wity some hardware and software) as you watch it, by pressing the Print Screen button, because DVD players avoid hogging all of your bandwidth by writing directly to the VGA signal by a method called "colorkey". 2) In order to capture the video from your (computer's) DVD player, you need to be able to disable hardware accell- eration in the DVD player application that you use, (IF the option is available), which will force the decoders to write to standard video memory. 3) With InterVideo WinDVD there is a command that captures the movie frame as a picture. Friends of mine use it sometimes and it was working OK. WinDVD now allows users to capture a static image during movie playback. Press the "P" key at any time to capture a BMP file of a moving or static image. Capture does not work on zoomed regions and on some hardware motion compensation graphics chips. If you are having a problem, try disabling hardware motion compensation and capturing again. Captured bitmaps are stored in the Capture subdirectory of the WinDVD directory on your hard drive. Captured files are numbered sequentially: cap001.bmp, cap002.bmp, and so on. I tried it and it worked! - Robert Zurga 4) PowerDVD offers this disable hardware accelleration option, which is very HANDY for taking a few shots when your watch your movie.


Please do things legally!

DVDs MPEG-2 Does not Map to NTSC Screen Size >PAL to NTSC Conversion


Please use only for legal copies!

During installation choose CUSTOMIZATION and DIS-able BING and other Toolbar installation You may wish to read the reviews (on the download page) HandBrake is an open-source, GPL-licensed, multiplatform, multithreaded video transcoder, available for MacOS X, Linux and Windows. Even converts AVI to MPEG-4. DVDZone - seems to be defunct ??? VLC is a free cross-platform media player. It can also be used as a streaming server, with extended features.

Download & Convert Youtube & Flash Videos to other Formats

Online Video Converter Sites

McAfee thinks that the sites are safe, But I would

Use your antiVirus program to Scan the converted file before using it.




By SUBJECT- New DVD Release & Reviews:


pending ...



DVD-V - DVD Video on DVD-ROMs. D-VHS - digital VHS tapes, for the recording of HDTV and DTV content. if you want to record HDTV onto a D-VHS VCR, you need ports.

DVI - Digital Visual Interface

(1) (Digital Visual Interface) A digital flat panel interface from the Digital Display Working Group (www.ddwg.org). The DDWG was formed to create a universal standard for attaching a flat panel monitor, and DVI is expected to become widely used. Based on TMDS signaling, the final draft of DVI was introduced in early 1999. See flat panel display and LVDS. DVI-A - Carries the Analog DVI signal to an Analog Display. DVI-D - Carries the Digital DVI signal to a Digital Display. DVI-I - Carries both Analog and Digital on the same connector. (2) (Digital Video Interactive) An earlier compression technique for data, audio and full-motion video from Intel. It provided up to 72 minutes of full-screen video on a CD-ROM with up to 100:1 compression ratio. Intel acquired DVI in 1988 from RCA's Sarnoff Research labs in Princeton, New Jersey, but DVI never caught on. DVI handles WXGA (the whole 1,280 x 768 pixels), anlog uses 983,040 pixels. DVI TV connections are being replaced by HDMI. may be required to view HD video, if certain content management features are enabled by the content Author. BUT if your HDTV has the first-generation input, you may have a big problem: First-generation DVI did not support (High-bandwidth Digital Conent Protection) back then, these early DVI connectors can't handle or . The result could be or worse, a blank screen. DVNR - Digital Video Noise Reduction.

DVR - Digital Video Recorders

I've used Scientific Atlantic's Explorer 8300 HDs and TiVos. From what I've read, do not get anything older than the 8300 HD model The HDMI output of the 8300 HD works and is really good, but the HDMI connection, may not provide the audio signal (still rare for HDMI connections [audio cables may be neccessary]). Just learned (1/2006) that Time-Warner is having trouble getting the audio to output through the HDMI connection (requiring separate audio cables). ED - Enhanced-Definition - a video "standard" between SD and HD. If the vertical resolution is less than , but equal to, or greater than, 480p, then the TV is considered to be an Enhanced Definition TV (EDTV).

ELP - Electroluminescent Panel

Entropy Encoding (Lossless Compression Algorithms)

Entropy Encoding compression algorithms are lossless, meaning that the compressed signal, when played back, can not be discerned from the original source. ENTROPY ENCODING 1] The source of the data is NOT taken into account when doing the compression 2] Remove repititive sequ3ences 3] Statistical encoding 4] Lossless and reversible SOURCE ENCODING 1] The data is transformed based on the source and its known characteristics 2] or lossless Other common entropy encoding techniques are 1] and 2] . EPG - Electronic Program Guide (an on-screen TV guide), There is a defined, yet currently unused, part of the HDTV specification which allows the inclusion of EPG (Electronic Program Guide). Hopefully, this feature will one day be utilized.


Faroudja invented in 1996, and became especially well-known for their NRS (Native rate Series) video enhancing products, based on technology. Genesis Faroudja DCDi Genesis Faroudja DCDi Cinema Genesis Faroudja DCDi Edge

FILM Info (Video)

FiOS - Fiberoptic Service - HDTV over (telephone company) optical cables FireWire = IEEE 1394 = iLink) - FireWire is often used to carry either signal, commands or both in HDTV setups. FireWire was and is(?) the medium of choice for connecting video cameras. FireWire can carry audio, video and control signals all in one high-speed connection.

Flash - Recovering Data On

Flicker -

FOLED- Flexible OLED

FOLEDs are organic light emitting devices built on flexible substrates. There are 18 different formats in the ATSC standard. Video formats are discussed in this web page (listed alphabetically).

FPT - Front Projection TV

Images are projected forward, to an external screen. Contrast with - Rear Projection TVs.


Fractals and Fractal Design Painter


FULL SCREEN = 1.33:1 = 4x3 = NTSC (older, analog) screen aspect ratio.


Taiwan-developed DVD format FVD (forward versatile disc).

GLOSSARIES - HDTV, HOME THEATER and Related Information

A lot of my HDTV related terms are listed in alphabetical order in this web page - not all of these are listed in the Jump table at the top of the page. MY other, large Technical Acronyms and Glossary information is located . SOME OTHER HDTV/HOME THEATER/AUDIO GLOSSARY SITES ARE:

GuidePlus - built into some TVs

GuidePlus works no more. UNC PBS is no longer supplying the on-TV channel Guide, GUIDEPLUS (not their fault). H.264- MPEG-4 AVC Advanced Video Coding. HD - high-definition video. HD is usually considered to require at least 720 of vertical resolution () up to and including . Any resolution greater than 1080p is not currently condidered HD (although it is capable of a an even better picture than is HD. See also .

HDCP - High-Bandwidth Digital Content Protection

HDCP is Intel's content protection scheme for digital displays, and IS supported by most currently (1/22/2018) available PC monitors. HDCP is also refered to as the Standard If your HDTV or Monitor does not have HDCP, you may not be able to view a High Definition () video signal. Earlier rumors were that HDTVs/Monitors without HDCP would (if the content manufacturer so desired) down-rezz the video signal to a resolution of either (a standard DVD) or . Lately, articles make it seem that the downsizing would be to - twice that of a standard DVD, but only one-fourth the possible rsolution of HDTV. HDCP - High-Bandwidth Digital Content Protection. HDCP v 2.2 12:20 PM 11/10/2014 - is NOT backwards compatible. ALL video equipment in your video viewing MUST be upgradedto HDCP v 2.2. HDCP 2.2 will probably be applied to video signals (movies). HDCP v 2.1 - was Breached. HDCP v 2.0 - was Breached.


Competes with Sony's HD DVD format. HD-DVD can use the same DVD stamping equipment (as non-HD DVDs), Blu-Ray can not. A new (5/2006), ugly problem is that withOUT HDMI version 1.3 (not yet [5/2006] available), connection, your HDMI probably can't handle the high speed, high bandwith of the newer AUDIO content used by Dolby's TrueHD and DTS from either or . MMC, Mandatory Managed Copy, lets you make at least one copy of an HD-DVD or Blu-Ray disc to send to a server or a portable player. Click for more MMC information. Dolby TrueHD is an option on HD-DVDs.


New, Digital FM stations that broadcast a very good digital FM signal with advanced audio encoding, such as Dolby Digital 5.1. Currently, 6/2006, there are not very many of these stations or HD-FM tuners available, although I see that Yahama just released an AVR that can handle HD-FM.


HDMI will be a REQUIRED connection for viewing HDTV signals IF, certain advanced content media protection locks are enabled on your or High Definition () video source. Both and formats will support , and could have this viewing restriction enabled. HDMI 1.4a includes the capability of carrying 3D signals to your TV If your system (A/V Receiver, or HDMI cables) can NOT handle HDMI 1.4a, the 3D signal will NOT be passed to your TV (which also needs to be HDMI 1.4a compliant). HDMI Version 1.3c is out HDMI Version 1.3b is out HDMI Version 1.3a is now (9/2007) available in AV equipment. I PERSONALLY WOULD ACCEPT ONLY HDMI VERSION 1.4a or LATER (1/2012) Actually, I would always make certain that I had the latest HDMI version! A new (5/2006), ugly problem is that withOUT HDMI version 1.3 (released 6/22/2006), connection, your HDMI probably can't handle the high speed, high bandwith of the newer lossless AUDIO content used by Dolby's TrueHD and DTS from either or . HDMI supports and (and lower resolutions). You can purchase a cable (adapter) to convert HDMI to . HDMI 1.2 is capable of transferring data at up to 5 Gbps. In HDMI version 1.3, Speed increased to 340 MHz (10.2 Gbps). The danger with older HDTVs/Projectors, is that HDCP may disallow them from being used because they don't come native with HDMI or DVI inputs. Luckily, there are some guys who have started building HDCP compliant interface boards. DVI and HDMI are completely compatable (I'm not so certain). Yes, HDMI is fully backward-compatible with DVI using the CEA-861 profile for DTVs. The only signal difference (the connectors are physically different) is that HDMI also carries the audio signal, along with the video signal. only carries the video signal. So how do you get your digital audio signal into your HDMI enabled HDTV/Digital Dolby 5.1 AVR? BUT if you your HDTV has the first-generation input, you may have a big problem: First-generation DVI did not support (High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection) back then, these early DVI connectors can't handle or . The result could be down-rezzing or worse, a blank screen. From the start, HDMI was defined to carry 8-channels, of 192kHz, 24-bit uncompressed audio, which exceeds all current consumer media formats. In addition, HDMI can carry any flavor of compressed audio format such as Dolby or DTS. HDMI cables can carry bi-directional signals, allowing a playback device to interrogate the video monitor and determine what resolutions it can support, and whether or not the display device supports any required Digital Rights Management (). This bi-directional connection can allow a "one-button play", which where the push of a single button can turn on, configure and start delivering content. Do not spend more than for a standard .

HDMI Cables

Never spend more then about for a standard 6 foot HDMI cable. Since HDMI is digital, these ultra shielded, expensive cables from your local HDTV store are a waste of money.


There are now (11/2006) Three different HDMI connectors defined: 1] Type A HDMI Connector - 19 pins and bandwidth support for SDTV, EDTV and HDTV. The connector is 13.9 mm wide by 4.45 mm high. Type A is will work electronically with single-link DVI-D 2] Type B HDMI Connector - Allows a higher resolution than does Type A HDMI connector. Type B has 29 pins (21.2 mm wide) and can carry very high video resolutions, such as WQSXGA (3200x2048). Type B is electronically compatiblewith dual-link DVI. and was defined in HDMI version 1.0. 3] Type C HDMI mini-connector is intended for devices needing smaller sized plugs, such as portable devices. It is the smallest of the HDMI connectors at 10.42 mm by 2.42 mm, but still has the same 19 pin configuration. Type C was defined in HDMI version 1.3. 4] Type D HDMI Connector - an Mini connector, uses the 19 pins of types A & B, but is physically smaller.

HDMI Version 1.4

HDMI utilizes three physically separate means of communication: "1] Display Data Channel (DDC). DDC provides a path for devices to report their audio & video specifications. 2] Transition Minimized Differential Signaling (TDMS) 3] Consumer Electronics Control (CEC)." - Maximum PC, September 2010 HDMI Ethernet Channel - Adds high-speed networking to an HDMI link, allowing users to take full advantage of their IP-enabled devices without a separate Ethernet cable. - 100 Mb Ethernet. In-order-to use Ethernet over HDMI, you will need a NEW HDMI cable, bearing the "with Ethernet" designation (this upgraded HDMI cable shields each wire to eliminate cross-talk). Ethernet data is carried over the existing DDC/CEC ground, HPD hot-plug detect, and Utility pins. Audio Return Channel - Allows an HDMI-connected TV with a built-in tuner to send audio data "upstream" to a surround audio system, eliminating the need for a separate audio cable. 3D Over HDMI - Defines input/output protocols for major 3D video formats, paving the way for true 3D gaming and 3D home theater applications. . 1.4 source devices must support at least One of the mandatory formats: 1] 1080p/24 with frame packing for gaming content, OR 2] 720p/60 OR720p/50 with frame packing for gaming. The display device identifies it's 3D capability with EDID (Extended Display Identification Data), 4K x 2K Video Support - Enables video resolutions far beyond 1080p, supporting next- generation displays that will rival the Digital Cinema systems used in many commercial movie theatres. Additional Color Spaces - Adds support for additional color models used in digital photography and computer graphics. Micro HDMI connector - A new, smaller connector for phones and other portable devices, supporting video resolutions up to 1080p. This connector includes a locking mechanism.

HDMI 1.3c was released on August 25, 2008

HDMI 1.3c changed testing requirements for active HDMI cables, ONLY. So as far as the comsumer is concerned, HDMI version 1.3c is identical to HDMI Version 1.3b.

HDMI Version 1.3b1 - released 3/26/2007

Adds testing requirements for HDMI Type C mini-connector. creates no operational changes from HDMI Version 1.3b and 1.3a.

HDMI Version 1.3b - released 11/9/2007

Version 1.3b is (7/2008) being tested by Manufacturers. From HDMI.ORG: For consumers, there is no difference between HDMI version 1.3 and 1.3a or 1.3b. These minor revisions to the specification typically relate to manufacturing or testing issues and do not impact features or functionality. In addition, HDMI Licensing, LLC is actively working with manufacturers to reduce confusion for consumers by de-emphasizing version numbers and focusing instead on product features and functionality. PERSONALLY, I PREFER MANDATORY VERSION LABELLING. Furthermore, I believe (MY OPINION) that only 1.3a, or later, seems to have the correct commands and CEC limits, along with range clarifications.

HDMI Version 1.3a

HDMI Version 1.3a was released in early November of 2006. BUT, I have yet to personally see any gear supporting HDMI 1.3a (4/2008). 1] Removed undershoot and maximum rise/fall time limits. 2] RGB video quantization range clarification 3] CEC capacitance limits changed. 4] Makes Source termination recommendations. 5] Cable and Sink modifications for Type C 6] CEC Commands for timer control brought back in an altered protocol, audio control commands were added in HDMI 1.3a. ALSO KNOWN AS HDMI-CEC. Samsung calls HDMI-CEC Anynet+ HDMI 1.3a can utilize CEC to control all CEC smart AV devices via a single remote control. HDMI version 1.3a contains CEC (HDMI-CEC). 7] A HDMI 1.3a Test Specification was released along with the 1.3a spec.

HDMI 1.3 was released 6/22/2006

HDMI 1.3 is what you need for new Blu-ray and HD-DVDs. HDMI 1.3 is backwards compatible, and includes these enhancments: 1] Speed increased to 340 MHz (10.2 Gbps). 2] Deep Color - optionally supports 30, 36 and 48-bit RBB or YCbCr color - up from 24 bit color. Deep Color increases the number of available colors within the boundaries defined by the RGB or YCbCr color space, while xvYCC expands the available range (limits) to allow the display of colors that meet and exceed what human eyes can recognize. 3] Broader Color Space - HDMI 1.3 removes virtually all limits on color selection. Next-generation color space supports 1.8 times as many colors as existing HDTV signals. A] Lets HDTVs and other displays go from millions of colors to billions of colors B] Eliminates on-screen color banding, for smooth tonal transitions and subtle gradations between colors C] Enables increased contrast ratio D] Can represent many times more shades of gray between black and white. At 30-bit pixel depth, four times more shades of gray would be the minimum, and the typical improvement would be eight times or more 4] Faster Frame Rates - rates can be increased from the standard 60 Hz frame rate, to at least 72 Hz (as some Pioneer Plasma sets can currently [12/2006] support). 5] New mini connector 6] Lip Sync - can automatically synch speech and video 7] New lossless audio formats: can carry and (These will be on the new HD Blu-ray and HD-DVD disks - SO WE NEED HDMI 1.3.) Sony's PlayStation 3 will debut with HDMI 1.3 (NOT , with Pioneer Receivers using HDMI version 1.3 in the Summer of 2007. ENSURE that you will NOT need any features of HDMI 1.3a in your Blu-ray DVD player. HDMI 1.3 announced 6/22/2006 The HDMI 1.2a Spec is out (12/2005).

FUTURE HDMI ENHANCEMENTS (all backwards compatible)

HDMI connectors will now be put through certification program (some companies have made them fit a little to loosely). A new HDMI specification, 1.3 includes support for 30-bit, 36-bit and even 48-bit . The new version of HDMI will also enable automatic lip-sync correction (eliminating lip-syncing problems caused by your home entertainment system. There will be a new min-connector for portable devices. HDMIG = High Performance HDMI Male to Male HDTV Digital A/V Certified Gold Cable HDVI - Cables that convert HDMI to DVI


HDRI - High Dynmaic Range Imaging (also called HDRI)

HDR/HDRI pictures taken by DSLRs is expected to disappear, as new DLSR sensors are being developed that sense as much dynamic range as the human eye. When these sensors come to market, there will be no need to use HDR, as the new sensors can gather all of the HDR/HDRI picture data in one picture. I do not know anyone who has used this software.


"HDV is a format for recording and playback of high-definition video on a DV cassette tape" HFS - Hardware Functionality Scan. A check to see if the hardware supports the required DRM (typically and for computers). HFS utilizes a chip specific "question" whose answer depends on , to prevent replaying the previous correct answer.

Hi8 (an 8 mm analog video format)



HiQnet - An protocol based on Ethernet, used by some high-end speakers to communicate with each other and with audio equipment to monitor the audio and to then make adjustments.


HQV - Hollywood Quality Video

The Realta Image-processing chip can enable viewers to get HQV from much lower resolution video sources. See also Silicon Optix's . HTIB - Home Theater In a Box IDTV = Integrated Digital Television = IDTV nothing new, just means that the Tuner(s) is integrated into the TV, no need for a settop box, although you will need a CablecARD (one per tuner) and have to have your signal provider supply you with it (probably rented - i.e., monthly charge, rather than a one-time charge).

HULU - streaming TV shows & movies

Hulu distributes video both on its own website and syndicates its hosting to other sites, Hulu requires Flash Player 10.0.22 or higher. Javascript is required to use Hulu.




IMAX Movies are available on DVD. Some are spectacular. IMAX - the Nature Collection (81 DVDs). Strangly, I don't see these mentioned on IMAX dot com. Best Buy now carries only the NASCAR DVD. Perhaps they are no longer made? I'll try to check.


Integrated HDTVs have a built-in HDTV receiver that can handle both ATSC TV and HDTV signals (broadcast over the air). lines are displayed at a time, and all lines are displayed 30 times a minutes (standard TV). HDTV and other formats may not display 50% of the lines every other time (it complicated when converting both picture size and resolution). Interlaced video, required for NTSC (analog) TV broadcasts, depended on the long persistance of the phosphors used in the picture tube to create the illusion that these phosphors were always on. This trait allowed NTSC TVs to first show half of the video lines on the TV, say the odd-numbered lines, and then display the even-numbered lines (this is called interlaced video). If the display is refreshed often enough, and the phosphers are visable most of the time, the human eye puts the odd and even numbered video lines together, and we think that we see the entire video display.




Not all vertical lines of the video picture are displayed at once. Usually half the

IRE - International Reference Units

IRE is a measurement of amplitude in video signals. Black is defined as 0 (zero) or 7.5 IRE (depending on the situation). White is defined as 100 IRE. All levels are included in the range of zero to 100.

ISO Images OR ISO sensitivity

There are two primary meanings of ISO here in the digital world: 1] In Digital Photography ISO measures the sensitivity of the image sensor. The same principles apply as in film photography – the lower the number the less sensitive your camera is to light and the finer the grain - 2] ISO image file - an exact representation of a CD or DVD, including the content and the logical format. To quote : "An ISO image file is an exact representation of a CD or DVD, including the content and the logical format. ISO files from Subscriber Downloads end with either an .ISO or .IMG extension. The extension might need to be changed to work with your CD writing software:" AfterDawn.com: Guides: How to burn a DVD Folder with ImgBurn ImgBurn carries on from where DVD Decrypter left off! (Well, for the burning part anyway!) ImgBurn is a freeware program that allows the recording of many types of CD/DVD images HOW TO COPY A CD or DVD USING "ImgBurn" I recently had to use create a DVD-R copy of a DVD+R for a neighbor lady whose DVD player could not play DVD+Rs. There were several bad spots on the original, and strangely, my DVD software could not read the original. I WAS able to use ImgBurn to 1] crate an ISO from the original DCVD+R and then 2] burn this ISO to a DVD-R. Thus I ended up with a perfect DVD-R copy created from a DVD+R. RUN ISO IMAGES AS A VIRTUAL DISK (WITHOUT USING DRIVE HARDWARE):

Jaggies - stair-like lines

Artifacts in raster images may be called Jaggies. Jaggies are stair-like lines that appear where they should not exist. Jaggies are often caused by too much or too little .


Juder is a picture instability, introduced when converting one frame rate to another. The process of eliminating Judder was created by Philips, quite a while ago, with it's Digital Natural Motion. It appears that Micronas, with their FRC chip, was the first company to eliminate Judder in HD displays and has licensed this to Loewe, Grundig and Sharp. JVC invented their own system, called Clear Motion Drive. Philip's now has an HD version called Perfect Pixel HD.

key2audio and key2audioXS

A Sony copy protection.

LABELS - using Sharpies on DVDs/CDs

I am still reseaching this subject. So, far I've been using sharpies for years, with no apparent problems. In the meantime, here are some existing opinions. It's well documented that the solvents can eat away at the recording layer and cause problems down the road. (from my friend, J). They sell special CD / DVD markers at places like Best Buy. Interesting thing that Joe does, he gets blank DVD cases from Blockbuster that they are going to throw away, and prints the inserts from www.cdcovers.cc, or scan them in. That way the case looks awsome. I write labels with a sharpie on the CD. avoid a pen based on alcohol or a solvent - National Institute of Technologies.


Laser TVs are brighter, clearer, much more energy efficient, and will be half the weight and depth of plasma TVs. Laser TVs are expected in the US by late 2007.

Layout Compositing / Layers (Graphics)

LCDs - liquid Crystal Displays

LCD (TVs) are taking over the small and medium display size market (< 60 inches). LCD sets are fairly lightweight and thin. LCDs are bright, have high resolution and won't have screen burn in problems. They are thje most expensive display per screen inch. NOTE: You probably want the ones with FOUR Millisecond response times, NOT the much more common THIRTY Milliscond response times (as they may show steaking during motion scenes). Note that LCD pixels may "die" - possibly effecting your picture quality. There are some (to lengthen the life of individual pixels). I DO NOT THINK THAT ANYONE STILL USES THE SLOWER 30 SECOND RATE, BUT ALWAYS CHECK THE SPEED. These days, I would get at least an actual 120 Hz refresh rate, NOT some softwware enhanced rates that they say is equivalent to 120 Mz. This is to cut down or eliminate the seen when things in motion are shown. "Modern LCD screens, however, are built with an internal light source. Such LCD screens consist of several layers. The backlight is usually the first layer from the back. But in order to create screen images, a mechanism is needed to regulate the light intensity of the screen's pixels. For this, light valves are used that vary the amount of light reaching the target by blocking its passage in some way. The most common element is a polarizing filter to polarize the light from the source in one of two transverse directions and then passing it through a switching polarizing filter, to block the path of undesirable light." - Wikipedia All LCD panel in all PC monitors and HDTV are active matrix panels. (6/2008) However, there are different panel materials (): - Inexpensive and good enough for most people. - More expensive and overall better - Most expensive panel tech and best for color accuracy. Stuck (Dead) Pixels - Fixing: Stuck pixels are often incorrectly referred to as a dead pixels. Stuck pixels are not guaranteed to be correctable, and can remain faulty for the life of the monitor. each pixel at up to 60 times a second to fix stuck pixels. must have for your specific manufacturer to replace it. See also: See also: Just when you think that "they" can't screw things up any further, along comes 6-bit LCDs (NOT the usual 8-bits). BE VERY CAREFUL WHEN BUYING AN LCD - in my opinion, you do NOT want to purchase a 6-bit LCD - buy the normal 8-bits. 8-bit LCDs can display 16.7 million colors, while a 6-bit LCD can only display 252,144 colors. 6-bit LCDs usually use techniques such as dithering, or frame rate control (FRC) to try to create a better looking picture. MaximumPC examined three 6-bit LCD models, and they state that the 6-bit LCDs looked less vibrant, with washed out colors. MaximumPC thinks that the 6-bit displays are probably acceptable given their cheaper prices. Investigate your potential purchase very carefully. 120 Hz LCDs - Some LCDs are now using a of 120 Hz, in an effort to reduce/eliminate blurring caused by fast motion. 240 Hz LCDs - Some expensive LCD monitors are now using a of 240 Hz, in an effort to reduce/eliminate blurring caused by fast motion. ASV - Advanced Super View), also called Axially Symmetric Vertical Alignment IPS - in-plane switching LCD Panels: IPS-Pro: Bistable Twisted Nematic (TN) LCDs (TN-LCD) are the cheapest, and therefore most common form of LCD displays. It was between ON and OFF with TNs, so the super-twisted nematic () display was developed. H-IPS - is a newer variation of S-IPS with a different pixel structure that improves contrast ratios and lowers pixel pitch to provide better picture quality. LCoS - Liquid Crystal on Silicon (also called HD-ILA [JVC] SXRD [Sony]) LCRT - Laser Cathode Ray Tube.

LEDs - Light Emitting Diodes

- Some sets now use LEDs for backlighting (instead of fluorescent light) - such displays warm up faster, last longer and can also be thinner. S-IPS - In Plane Switching) panels - considered the best overall LCD technology for image quality, color accuracy and viewing angles. Wide viewing angles up to 178 degress. Fast paced games may suffer from motion blur or ghosting with S-IPS panels that have a response time higher than 8ms - pchardwarehelp.com TN Panel Technology the most widely used active LCD type (12/2008), cheapest and CAN have response times between 2ms to 5ms - READ THE SPECS. My opinion only - Gamers should avoid greater than 3ms response times. TN panels use color and unable to display the full 16.7 million colors available in 24-bit true color - Instead, they display interpolated 24-bit color. MY OPINION - AVOID THESE (TN LCDs) if you work with digital photogoraphy. S-PVA - More expensive and overall better than TN VA Panel Technology - Vertical Alignment - VA (Vertical Alignment) technology such as S-PVA/MVA are middle of the road LCD panels. they offer better color reproduction and wider viewing angles than TN panels, but have . Some suffer from streaking during fast mostion and may exhibit color shifting. See also: See also: See also:

Lenticular Lens - also used for some 3D

LIGHTROOM (Adobe's Photoshop)

Adobe's Lightroom 3 is out, and the is the latest version. LIGHTROOM 4 IS AVAILABLE RAW IMAGES: See also:

Lightroom 3 and PicasaWeb

Using Picasaweb from Lightroom 3(LR3)

Lightroom - SimpleViewer-Pro - Full Screen Slideshow plug-in

Line Doublers

A type of scaler that upscales only. They take an input resolution and interpolate (based on the color of the adjacent lines) a new line in between the real lines, resulting in doubling the number of lines output to your display. Obviously, they can only double lines up to what ever is their limit. See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also:


A compression technique that does not decompress data back to 100% of the original. Lossy compressed data can not be decompressed back to it's orignal signal - the file shrinks through the loss of data - some loss always occurs. The amount of loss depends upon the amount of compression, the algorithms used, and the type of data. Lossy compression provides a high degree of compression. The most loss that can be tolerated provides the most compression (smaller files).


Pulse code modulation (PCM) with linear quantization. LPCM is essentially an uncompressed audio format that can similar to CD audio. Some LPCM coders and decoders on the market support sampling rates up to 192kHz and/or sample sizes up to 32 bits. It's a bitstream encoder/decoder. .M4A = MPEG 4 Audio files are Apple's wrongly named audio only files. Doom9.org states that .m4a files can be renamed to (and processed as) .mp4 files. No licenses or payments are required for M4A. .m4e files are renamed Envivo .sdp files. () .m4p files are iTunes protected files. () .m4v files are Apple's wrongly named file extension for .mp4 files. .m4v files are usually raw mpeg-4 video data (not encapsulated in MP4). () Doom9.org states that .m4v files can be renamed to (and processed as) .mp4 files. Other sources maintain that any file suffix with the numeral '4' in the middle, is DRM protected. Matrix Encoding - Combining surround-sound audio information into normal stereo audio. Variants of are the most commonly used Matrix Encoding. MB - Megabyte. 1024 times 1024 bytes (10 to the 6th power) = 1,048,576. Mbps - Megabits per second. Millions (10 to the 6th) of bits per second.


Sony has also used SunnComm's MediaMax DVD copy protection. megapixel - an image/display format with a resolution of approximately 1 million pixels. memory - Computer/digital electronics data storage (usually does not rotate). Examples: RAM - Random Access Memory (does not have to be be read/written sequential). Data in normal RAM will be erased when the RAM is powered off. ROM - (permanent) Read Only Memory (can not be re-written). Some people include CDs, DVDs, Floppies and the like as memory.

MHL port = Mobile High-Definition Link

The MHL 3.0 standard supports up to 4K (Ultra HD) high-definition (HD) video and 7.1 surround-sound audio, including TrueHD and DTS-HD. MHL stands for Mobile High-Definition Link technology, which allows you to display your smartphone's content to a larger screen, all while charging your mobile device (a smart phone, for example). MHL delivers up to 8K 120fps for tomorrow’s home theater products and 4K 60fps and beyond for mobile devices. Introducing superMHL - http://www.mhltech.org/ Are you ready for the next evolution of MHL®? We’re proud to introduce superMHL™, our latest technology specification. For mobile, we’re delivering higher resolution, faster frame rates, support for the USB Type-C connector and 40W of power charging, while expanding capabilities for tomorrow’s living room though 8K video at 120 frames per second, a consumer friendly superMHL connector and picture enhancement features. Imges for MHL ports


Micro-displays - a new type of RPT wherein weight and size have been significantly reduced, while light output has been increased. Current micro-display types are (proprietary names excluded): DLP - Digital Light Processing. FOLED - Flexible OLED. LCD - Liquid Crystal Display. LCOS - Liquid Crystal on Silicon. OLED - Organic LEDs. SED - surface-conduction electron-emitter display. SXRD - Silicon X-tal Reflective Display - Sony's version of LCoS TOLED - Transparent OLEDsTransparent OLED displays are about 2 years from production (6/2006). MHz - One million (10 to the 6th power) Hz (hertz)


Note: MIDI can not include vocals unless it's a proprietary format (not playable elsewhere) Millenium Group - The companies that proposed the Galaxy format (Digimarc, Macrovision and Philips). Mini Plug = 1/8 inch (3.5 mm) audio connector. MKB - Media Key Block, used in CPRM and CPPM to authenticate players.

MLP - Meridian Lossless Packing

Used in DVD-Audio to remove redundancy from PCM auio signals - results in a compression ration of about 2:1 while allowing for 100% (total signal reconstruction) decompression by the MLP decoder.

MMC - Mandatory Managed Copy

MMC lets you make at least one copy of an HD-DVD or Blu-Ray disc to send to a server or a portable player. MMC is very important to computer companies, such as Microsoft and Intel, who want people to be able to use media-Center PCs to store and broadcast (in the house) High Definition movies. Both Blu-ray and HD-DVD support MMC, it is not clear under what conditions, if any, you will be able to make your one legal copy, or if the copies will be free. TBD (To Be determined).

MMCD - Multi-Media CD

Sony and Philip's format - (12/1994) red-laser single-sided, 3.7 Billion-byte standard. MMCD Was formerly called HDCD. MO - Magneto-optical rewritable disks.

MoCA - Multimedia over Coaxial Alliance

"Like Ethernet, MoCA transfers digital content and information, but uses a coaxial cable to do so. So if you cannot access an Ethernet port near your DVR, you can use the same coaxial cable that brings the cable signal to your DVR to connect to your home network." - I tried MoCA using TiVo's with built-in MoCA (TiVo did NOT state which version of MoCA was used, but since I was working with my older XL TiVo, I suspect it was an earlier MoCA version. While I was able to get my Digital Cable 4-channel XL to see my (bought from TiVo) ActionTec [they seem to have a lot of satisfied customers] MoCA adapter which I had plugged into my 1G Ethernet LAN switch, I was NEVER ABLE TO SEE THE MoCA NETWORK FROM EITHER the third floor HDTV nor the two TVs on the 1st Floor. My Motorola SB-SB6141 Docsis 3.0 Cable modem includes an internal filter to eliminate potential interference from MoCA signals' intermodulation beats - SO - NEED TO REVIEW HOW I ADDED MoCA to my 1G office LAN (to ensure that I did not filter out my MoCA signal. As I remember, I placed the ActionTec MoCA adapter BEFORE the Cable modem, so it should have worked. THUS MoCA did not work for me. I have wired the rest of my house with 1G Ethernet. Most of my COAX is (quad-shielded RG6 coax). I had previously installed the TiVo supplied (separate purchase) PoE filter just before my whole house coax splitter. All the Splitters that I can find for my house were previously converted to 3G coax splitters. I DO THINK THERE IS ONE MORE 1G SPLITTER IN MY SECOND FLOOR COAX CABLE (I need to located it), that I have not found. I've read a lot about other MoCA users - seems to either work very well or it never works, for many users. MoCA 2.0 offers two new performance modes with net or actual throughputs of 400 and 800 Mbps, respectively, each with a corresponding turbo mode. -

Monitors - REVIEWS

Just being in this list does NOT mean that the monitor has my approval.

If I recommend any monitor, I will say so.

DELL UltraSharp U2711 Review

NEC AccuSync AS221WM 22" TFT Monitor

SAMSUNG B2330H 23 inch Monitor

SAMSUNG 2693HM 25.5 inch full 1080p HD LCD Monitor

I've had this monitor for a year. So far, it works perfectly. It does have that well-known problem wherein the limited viewing angle causes the bottom of the screen to appear brighter than the top. Has a 4-way adjustable stand. This is an monitor. I DON'T BELIEVE IT. All TN LCDs are supposedly 6-bit color. Manufacturers of use some special techniques to interpolate two more bits of color. It is almost impossible to find the Montor adjustment switches (OCD) without a flashlight. The Brightness Level is factory set at a ridiculous 100%, so you will need to adjust it. Format: 16x10 ratio (slightly wider than HDTV). Type: a-si /TN LCD Display Type Resolution: 1,920x 1,200 Viewing Angle: 160 degree(H) / 160 degree (V) I'm not sure that I believe it - I think that verticle viewing angle is not as good as 160 degrees. Pixel-response rate: 5ms Light Source: CCFL Color Gamut (NTSC %): 97% Maximum Colors Supported: 16.7M Contrast ratio: 1000:1, 3000:1 (Dynamic) Brightness: 400cd/m2 Connectivity: HDMI, DVI, VGA HDCP compliant? Yes Included video cables? DVI, VGA Weak built-in speakers. When set to warm - very accurate color tint and did not suffer from looking too red. You will want to make your own Brightness and Contrast adjustments. You may want to make your own Color adjustments. Here are (which I found from someone who used an eye2 calibration thingy): Brightness : 17 Contrast : 85 Red : 20 Green : 12 Blue : 23 Sharpness: 40

ViewSonic VX2233WM 22" LCD -

Monitor Test patterns

Mosquitoes (Digital Artifacts)

Fuzzy dots that can appear around sharp edges after digital video compression. .mov - Apple's Quicktime container format similar to MP4. .mov was the basis for Part 14 (.mp4) standard.


MP3 and MP3Pro

MP3s can now limit # of times they are copied.

MP3 - MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3

The typical MP3 file bit rate is 128Kbps.

MP3 Pro

combines MP3 with . MP3Pro was developed by the makers of the MP3 spec, to defeat the growing number of competing compression standards that offered better sound quality and smaller files than does MP3. You may be interested in Supposedly, MP3Pro files offer 128-bit sound quality at a 64Kbps encoding rate, which roughly translates to better quality files (sound) that are half the size of MP3 files.


Global Music's format - Combines MPEG-4 AND AAC. MP4 is a container format for MPEG-4, and examples include .mpg, .ogm, .mpeg. MP4 can be streamed. MPAA - Motion Picture Association of America


Layer 1 is for digital cassettes. Layer 2 is for radio. Layer 3 for Internet Music (better known as MP3).


DVD's MPEG-2 Doesn't Map to an NTSC Screen Size. DVD's MPEG-2 Doesn't Map to NTSC Screen Size.

MPEG-4 AVC (Advanced Video Coding) = H.264

Satellite HDTV is expected to shift to using MPEG-4 compression. MPEG-4 does a much better job of compression/decompression and handling motion than does MPEG-2. MPEG-4 supports a variety of media types, including 3D (3-Dimensional) and . MPEG-4 also be used for a very wide variety of bandwidth signals (from cell phones to HDTV), and can integrate many audio formats. In other words, MPEG-4 is very versatile - and does an excellent job transporting signals. Can be used to manipulate the appearance and sound of MPEG-4 data. MP4 is the offical file extension suffix for the MPEG-4 container format. MPEG-4 is now available in a new flavor - known variously as Layer 10, H.264, or AVC - and it's likely to surpass MPEG-2 in quality-critical applications. Walsh, AAron E. and Mikael Bourges-Sevenier MPEG-4: Jump-Start PH 0-13-060036-9


MPEG-7 is used as a structure to define the management of multimedia data.


Usually called just or .

MSDL - MPEG Syntax Description Language

MSDL is used to modify the delivery of of visual and audio information in (MP4).


Microsoft has developed MS HD Photo, an HD photo compression algorithm. MS HD Photo will probably be called: JPEG-XR, and will be royality FREE. MSO - multiple system operator- an operator that owns multiple cable systems, for example, Time Warner Cable.

MTS - Video Files - AVCHD media packed inside MPEG2 file containers

I suggest that you read , There is a lot of good MTS information there. "FFDShow works just fine. I hear Google's Picasa plays MTS files. Would you need a proper Hdcp video card to play those files I wonder? Just have a try with the powerful mts file converter, convert mts can be done perfectly! VLC play well MTS files, but it must be VLC version 1.0.5, the last one available today for free on many places on internet. Also I must have 2G of ram on my PC. VLC (videolan) is and always has been free software as in beer (as well as-in open source free) The best place to get a tamper-free version of VLC is their own website http://www.videolan.org/vlc/ not some random file site out on the interwebs. Sorry forgot to post my results !! I tried the following and it worked perfect. converted all the files to .avi with HD and it's great !! Program is: Xilisoft Video Convertor Ultimate 6. Recommend this program !!" I simply gave up of all the free stuff from Google search. In the end, I turn to an affordable AVCHD MTS/M2TS Converter from Aunsoft Studio. Lucky for me. The program turns out to be a solid and flexible MTS converter with excellent output quality for my WMP. More than that, it's also a great MTS/M2TS joiner with function of deinterlacing AVCHD files. I suggest you convert the MTS files for editing and playing purposes as working with raw MTS files is too slow. I'm using Pavtube MTS Converter to convert the HD mts video taken from Sony Handycam. The speed and quality was fine for my purposes. The software was very easy to use and I had no issues with converting my files. you can try it. It has windows and mac version. Anyway...if you want to use a custom profile when saving in Movie Maker...have a look at the following info/articles. To find the advanced options... Type...Ctrl+P to open the Save Movie Wizard / Choose...My Computer / Next / Enter a Name and a Save Location / Next / Show More Choices / Other Settings / Open the drop window to display the choices. The 1024x768 profile you can download from the following site would be a good choice. The name of it is: SlideShow-1024x768WMV9 Once you download the .prx profile...place it in the following folder: C:\Program Files\Movie Maker\shared\profiles If the Profiles folder doesn't exist...you'll have to create it. Movie Maker 2 - Saving Movies - Custom WMV Profiles http://tinyurl.com/s2vgu or... http://www.papajohn.org/MM2-SavingMo...mProfiles.html Creating Custom Profiles for Windows Movie Maker 2 http://tinyurl.com/cuny7 or... http://www.microsoft.com/windowsxp/u...omprofile.mspx -- J. Inzer MS-MVP Digital Media Experience Microsoft's Movie Maker will rotate movie clips 90' but you must have XP installed. You can rotate video clips in Windows Movie Maker by doing the following: 1. Import the video clip into Movie Maker. 2. Drag the imported video clip and drop it onto the timeline. 3. On the Tools menu, click Video Effects. 4. To rotate the video clip to the right, drag the Rotate 90' video effect and drop it onto the movie on the timeline. 5. On the File menu, click Save Movie File and follow the instructions in the Save Movie Wizard. For detailed instructions, see Windows Movie Maker Help. Quote: Note that you may need to adjust the pixel aspect ratio of your rotated video so that it looks normal during playback. -


MP3s can now limit # of times they are copied.

Multi-pass Encoding

When the video encode analyzes the input material many times before commencing with the actual encoding.



DRAT - can only play songs from SPIRALFROG on your computer and you can not burn them to CD (they are protected). spiralfrog.com is now (march 19, 2009) DEFUNCT

HiFi (Music) Information on the Internet

Native Rate (also called Native Resolution)

All HDTVs have a "native" resolution (or "native rate" Internally, all video signals are converted to this resolution, if neccessary, before being manipulated to produce the requested resolution and picture size. LCD, plasma, and DLP use a fixed array of pixels to display images. The dimensions of the pixel array are referred to as the native resolution. The resolution at which a TV or monitor is designed to display images. Image signals higher or lower than a specified native resolution must be converted to be displayed accurately. Native Rates for most LCDs, DLPs and Plasmas is often around 720p (12/2005), although you can now purchase units that support . See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also:


Neo:6 decodes normal 2-channel audio into 6-channel playback. It creates playback with full-range channels with higher separation, comparable to digital discrete signal playback. Neo:6 consists of two modes: 1] Cinema mode and 2] Music mode.

NETFLIX - Streaming (HD) Movies or via snail mail

Netflix has deals with most hardware manufacturers - You can get streaming Netflix HD movies on your: nits - Candela per square metre - a (video / ) measure of .

NTSC - National Television System Committee

An NTSC tuner is one that tunes the old style, analog, over-the-air signals. NTSC video signals are displayed in an aspect ratio of , and are analog signals. The NTSC format is more correctly called the M format, consists of 29.97 interlaced frames of video per second. Each frame consists of 486 lines out of a total of 525 (the rest are used for "overhead" [signal control and extra data, such as ]). NTSC TV is being phased out. The current drop-dead (no more NTSC broacasting) date is March, 2008. Also called "FULL SCREEN". HOWEVER, it seems to be more typical to get about from an older NTSC TV. NTSC typically broadcasts about a viewable 450 lines of vertical resolution. s can produce a video display.

OCAP - OpenCable Applications Platform

OCAP is supposed to enable manufacturers of interactive TV and programs to provide support for all functions allowed on the cable company's network. The currrent OCAP 1.0 specification was issued in late 2001.

ogg Vorbis

Vorbis is an open and free audio compression codec.

OLED - Organic LEDs

Organic LEDs are another TV display option. No backlight is required for OLED displays. OLED TVs were shown at CES 2012, and will be available in 2012.

OPM - Output Protection Management (Microsoft DRM)

PVP = Protected Video Path. PAP = Protected Audio Path. PVP-UAB = PVP User-Accessible Bus. SAP = Secure Audio Path PUMA = Protected User Mode Audio Note that no OPM functions are allowed until a Hardware Functionality Scan (HFS) confirms that required (typically and OPM for computers) handling exists. Optical Digital Audio Connectors - all optical audio connectors for the USA are 6 mm. This is the larger TOSlink connector, not the smaller, "mini-optical connector. (I'm told that since all connectors in the USA are supposed to be 6mm (TOSlink), there should be no confusion.) TOSlink is capable of carrying TWO decompressed PCM audio data, or 5.1 channels of Dolby Digital or DTS-encoded audio data. To cary eight channels of uncompressed PCM audio, you need four S/PDIF or TOSlink connections, all working together (this is not happening). OTA - Over The Air (broadcast) TV shows. See also: . See also: See also: OTT - In broadcasting, over-the-top content (OTT) refers to delivery of audio, video, and other media over the Internet without the involvement of a multiple-system operator in the control or distribution of the content. - Over-the-top (OTT) services: Netflix, Amazon Prime and HBO Go.

PAL - Information About

Note - I believe that the Highly recommended "DVD Demystified" Book comes from this FAQ.

PAL to NTSC Conversion

Note - I believe that the Highly recommended "DVD Demystified" Book comes from this FAQ. Many cheap DVD players play PAL and output NTSC. Someone did the long slow TMPenc way and yes the results are great but is it ever a pain plus it takes all afternoon for just one movie. Canopus Procoder (the best in someone's opinion.Easy to use but $$$$$$$) PAP - Protected Audio Path - A Microsoft . PAP - Picture And Picture - displays two channels side-by-side, instead of putting one a tiny window. Depending on what formats are being viewed on what screen's aspect ratio, black bars may be visable.

Passive Matrix LCD Display

Passive Matrix LCDs have a more narrow fiewing angle that do , and do not allow multiple people to have a quality view of the display (the narrow angle makes it very difficult for more than one person to view a Passivce Matrix computer monitor). More recent, better, versions of Passive Matrix LCD Displays: CSTN - Color Super-Twisted Nematic, are improved versions of the Passive Matrix displays DSTN - Double Layer Super-Twist Nematic, are improved versions of the Passive Matrix displays HPA - High-Performance Addressing displays, are improved versions of the Passive Matrix displays Today's Passive Matrix, while much improved, is still does NOT yield as high a quality as does an LCD Display. PEL - same as a .

PCM (Linear PCM)

Pulse Code Modulation. Linear PCM is a signal format which digitizes an anlog audio signal, records and transmits the signal without using any compression. Linear PCM is one method used when recording the audio portion of CDs and DVDs. The analog signal is encoded as pulses and then modulated for recording.



PIP - Picture In Picture - One small window covers the main channel window. PIP can often be moved around in the entire screen to a desired location.

PIXELS (also called PELs)

Each horizontal line displayed on a TV or Monitor consists of tiny dots, called "pixels". These pixels can be turned off, red, blue or green. To get the total pixel count, multiple the largest number of pixels that can be displayed on the horizontal line, with the number of vertical lines. Note that some displays, such as CRTs (Cathode Ray Tubes) or LCD displays have a fixed number of pixels. Other types of displays, such as RPT sets, can display a variable number of pixels. Pixels generally come in one of two shapes: Square or Rectangular. Since TVs/Monitors generally have more horizontal lines than vertical lines, rectangular pixels was usually the type used. Computer monitors and HDTVs use Square pixels, as they work better for display modes (the picture looks better).


Pixelization on your TV can have several causes: 1] Poor reception (signal strength is too low). THIS IS TYPICALLY THE NUMBER ONE CAUSE of PIXELIZATION. See If on cable, open a complaint about the signal quality. Causes can include: bad cable, bad splitter, bad connector, router, dirty fiber, bad connection 2] Signals that are compressed too much will often yield pixelization - this is caused when the Cable or Satellite company is compressing the TV signal too much, in an effort to squeeze more stations in the alloted bandwidth. I have read reports in the past, that Comcast was doing this in some locations. I have also heard (this may be false) that some of the TV satellite are using to much compression. See also Plasma (TVs) are bright and detailed, but offer a better black level than most LCDs. Unlike LCDs, some models of Plasma sets can get burn in if you run them too hard (perhaps have the contrast turned up high) or watch too much TV with the channel's Icon displayed on the screen. The best sets can be close to tube displays in picture quality. Quality of Plasma sets, like most things, varys significantly. BURN PROTECTION - There are some new tricks being used to extend the , including: the pixel orbiter, another trick to avoid burn-in is to turn off pixels that have been on for too long a time. User should watch as many shows in Wide-screen mode as possible (any why not), as this prevents continually using the same pixels for the sidebars. Keeping your plasma TV as cool as possible will also prolong it's life. Most TV manufactures are now quoting the lifespan of their plasma TVs as 60,000 hours. However, Plasma TVs do get more dim as they age, so their lifespan is usually considered to be the half-life of the phosphors, so that would mean abour 30,000 hours. might just leave plasma in the dust.

PlayReady DRM

Microsoft announced PlayReady, a new Digital Rights Management (DRM) system to allow the use of DRM protected content on multiple devices for a single fee. PlayReady may not be in commercial use for some time. It could be used on any platform (any operating system, any heardware [if so programmed]). POP - Picture-Out-of-Picture - uses about three-quarters of the screen to display one channel and then shrinks down the other channel to display it in the remaining space. This leaves black bars at the top and bottom of the screen where the secondary channel displays, but unlike , there is no window covering a portion of the first channel. See also .


More information coming soon. See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also:


POWER CONSUMPTION of Household Appliances



All lines of a video picture are displayed at once, from top to bottom, instead of displaying some, then displaying the others (interlaced). Regular (analog/NTSC) TV is interlaced, and refreshes the display of 50% of the lines once, sixty times per minute. Some TVs/Monitors will interlaced video, to create progressive scan video.


program and system information protocol. Within their signal, digital stations send channel remapping info via something called . PVR - Personal Video Recorder. I see no real difference between a PVR and a PVP-OPM Protected Video Path Output Protection Management. Downgrades video resolutionor blocks tghe picture entirely if the connected display doesn't support content protection. PVP-UAB Protected Video Path User-Accessable Bus. Encrypts video content as it passes over the PCi-Express bus from the high-def disc to prevent other PCI Express devices from intercepting the video stream.

QAM - quadrature amplitude modulation

QAM stands for quadrature amplitude modulation, the format by which digital cable channels are encoded and transmitted via cable television providers. QAM it allows you to pull in certain (UN-encrypted) digital cable channels without the use of a set-top box. - CNET If you have a QAM tuner, you will not need a to view UN-scrambled (non Pay channels, such as HBO) .

Rear Projection TVs (RPT)

Rear Projection TVs is probably the cheapest way to buy a large screen size. In bright light (sunny rooms) most RPTs appear washed out. RPTs are also bulky and heavy. Some RPTs are meant to be on a stand, which is usually optional (additional cost). Newer types of RPTs, Micro-displays, are available. . QT - Quick Time. Contains some DRM features. RA - RAM -


Coming Soon... RMA - Regional Management

REALTA - a programmable HQV video chip

While 1080p was the big story at CEDIA (2005), high resolution is far from the only factor in producing a high-quality image. For example, it's very encouraging that several manufacturers have turned to Silicon Optix's Realta image processing chip to improve picture quality, even if it is a more expensive solution than others. Some of the products incorporating the new Realta chip include NEC's premium plasmas; Yamaha's DPX-1300 front projector; 3M's videowalls; Digital Projection's, Lumagen's, and Calibre's dedicated scaler/improcessors; and Runco's Vivix-enabled displays. See also .


YAMAHA 980 Watt 7.1 Digital A/V Receiver - handles 9.1 surround sound speakers

Reel60 technology

Hitachi has developed what it calls Reel60 technology to reduce . Instead of just increasing the TV's , doubling the rate to 120 per minute by showing eash frame twice, Reel60 interpolates a new frame between to existing frames to create a smother transition from one actual (existing) frame to the next.


REFRESH RATE (Vertical, Video)

Many people can detect the 60 cycle refresh rate that is used for both HD and NTSC TV. Maximum Resolution - BEST BUY - 2/2016 1920 x 1080 1366 x 768 3840 x 2160 1080 x 1920 1280 x 1024 3840 x 2160 (4K) 1024 x 768 1600 x 900 2560 x 1440 1680 x 1050 2560 x 1080 A lot of new LCD monitors have a refresh rate of 120 HZ, double the normal rate of 60Hz. This higher refresh rate helps eliminate blurring, which may be seen while viewing fast moving sceens in videos or games.


Worked great for us - should have done it sooner - exact same remote control. Someone recently recommended (I know nothing about this company): MR Remote - www.electronicadventure.us 1-800-294-3889 Since original remotes or remotes that you are using likely will not have overt part ID information you will need specific information relating to the TV with which it is being used from the TV or it's original documentation that came with the TV.

Reon-VX HQV by Silicon Optix

Reon-VX HQV (Hollywood Quality Video) provides an advanced form of video processing.


"Response time is the amount of time a pixel in an LCD monitor takes to go from a fully active (black) to fully inactive (white) and back to fully active (black) again" ().

RF (Radio Frequency) - New Remote Control Specification

A new RF Remote Control protocol is being developed (6/2008) to handle more advanced functionality (which can not be handled by today's protocols. The new protocol (standard) will be based on the IEEE 802.15.4. MAC/PHY radio technology specification in the 2.4-GHz frequency band. RGBHV - An RGBHV cable splits the video signal into five (5) parts, red, green and blue color information, plus horizontal and vertical sync info. These five cables are usually terminated with either RCA or BNC connectors.

RESOLUTION (also called "rez"

Video content and video displays (TVs/monitors) have two resolutions: 1] Vertical Resolution 2] Horizontal Resolution - not very relevent. Vertical Resolution is the number of scanning lines presented by a video display from the top of the display to the bottom. NTSC has a theoretical vertical resoluion of 480 lines (). HDTV has a vertical resolution that can be 1080 () lines. Horizontal Resolution is the amount of line detail (usually measured in pixels) that can be contained in a video format in each horizontal scanning line. NOTE that there are schemes in place to prevent your being able to view a High Definition video signal if your equipment: 1] Does not have inputs 2] Is not compliant These features are enforceable by and other schemes. These schemes are built-in DVDs and (although the the "flags" telling the hardware to restrict viewing to compliant hardware only, might not be turned on in the media that you wish to view).

RGB - Red, Green Blue color channels

(monitor) VGA connector = RGB = D-sub 15 = mini sub D15 = mini D15 = three-row 15 pin DE-15 See also: See also: See also: See also: See also:

Adobe RGB (1998)

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ProPhoto RGB

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sRGB - An agreement to standardize how to handle colors, originally for Monitors, but now for any monitor, printer, scanner, or camera. sRGB means (ITU-R BT.709 primaries, 2.2 gamma, 6500 degrees Kelvin, no luma spec but try 30 fL for consistency with video). See also: See also: See also: See also: See also:



Recording Industry Association of America RMC - Room-mode Correction - audio corrections made to counteract any of a room's audio "problems".

ROAD RUNNER (North Carolina)

Road Runner Email Settings: pop-server.nc.rr.com - INCOMING smtp-server.nc.rr.com - OUTGOING (probably set by default) news-server.nc.rr.com - NEWSGROUP SERVER https://webmail.nc.rr.com/ - Web Mail (via Firefox, Internet Explorer, etc. Road Runner/Time-Warner (RTP area) is using , not . See also

ROKU - Streaming Netflix & other consumer products

- "Roku - a consumer electronics firm which specializes in home digital media products, including the first Netflix streaming receiver box". ROM - Read Only Memory (can not be over-written).

ROUTERS - Home & Small Office

Desired ("REQUIRED") Router Capabilities (MY opinions)

1] Stateful Packet Inspection () 2] NAT - () is the translation of an Internet Protocol address (IP address) used within one network to a different IP address known within another network. 4] Protocols must include: DHCP, PPPoE, TCP 5] At least Four (4) Gigabit Ethernet (10/100/1000) Ports for computers, TiVos, etc. (plus one for your Cable/DSL Modem) 6] HTTP - GUI management (manage Router via your web browser) 7] Auto-sensing Ports (both "Polarity" () and Speed) 8) Features: Pass-Thru (allow VPN connections to go through the Firewall) Firewall Protection - You NEED a Server Auto-uplink auto MDI/MDI-X) (straight-through or Cross over detection & Connection) 9) 10) If it is a wireless router, it needs to support . 11) I would consider a Gigabit Router - the prices have come down a lot. A Gigabit Router will only improve throughput if it is connected via Gigabit Ethernet connections between two devices on your network - in other words, a really typical home user will have no use for one. Notes: Unless you have/install Gigabit cards and cables, a Gigabit Router will NOT increase your throughput. Unless you now, or later, want to transfer large files or run streaming video through your router, a Gigabit Router will NOT really be useful (so perhaps you do NOT want one). NOTE - I highly recommend NOT (my opinion) buying a Router with an LCD screen. My Opinions on these LCD screens also applys to LCD panels on systems. 1] It adds to the cost of the device. 2] These LCD screens take power to run 3] Just something else to break 4] You don't need this information - get it from normal lights or a web browser connection. 5] They can be hard to read 6] or it might be on the "wrong" side of the Router in your setup, so you can't readily see it. NICE ROUTER FEATURES TO HAVE: 1] Deep Packet Inspection - probably impossible to CURRENTLY (1/2010) find on a reasonably priced Router DPI will come with the next generation Routers. 2] A mechanism for prioritizing packets (ONLY if you do unique things, like VoIP, Gaming, streaming video) and these packets run through your Router.

ROUTER REVIEWS - Home & Small Office


I, personally, have decided not to buy another D-Link router - this is my opinion.


Linksys WRT54G

The WRT54G was one of the best and most popular routers. OF COURSE, IT IS FAR TO SLOW FOR THESE DAYS. It came in many different versions. There is open source code available to download onto most versions of this router - the open source code allows even more features and options (of course, if your warentee ist still good, unlikely, this VOIDS your warentee).


Because RPC1 did not provide Regional Management (DVD's made for one region can not be played on a DVD player made for another region), RPC2 was developed. All (DVD) drive manufacturers are required to implement RPC2. RPC2 drives maintain the region code and region change count (region codes can be changed 5 times), in the drive firmware. After the five times, only the manufacturer can change region code. RPC2 has four region states: 1] None - the drive region has not yet been set. 2] Set - the drive region code has been set. 3] Last Chance - the region-setting counter is '1', and the drive region can be set one more time (The counter starts at '5', and is decremented when a region code change is made). 4] Permanent - The region-setting counter is '0', and the region can no longer be changed.


Sony's high-resolution audio format that's was competing with DVD-A to eventually replace CDs. SACD discs are not backwards-compatible with current CD players. However, dual-layer hybrid discs have been introduced that allow a SACD player to access the high-resolution layer and a standard CD player to play back the regular top layer. Music companies are dis-continuing support for SACD. Sample Rate - The number of times a digital sample is taken per second (Hertz). SAP - Secondary Audio Program. Some TVs and DVDs can handle SAP, which is usually is used to present the audio portion of the program in another language, such as Spanish. SBR - Spectral Band Replication


Electronic circuit usually capable of converting video picture (vertical) resolution (up [up-converted] or down), (also "delacing") or inter-lacing, and coverting the display ratio (picture dimensions). Digital recording is done a , and film is recorded at . One of the (usual) tasks of Scalers is to convert from one speed to another. Smart Scalers can detect the rate (24 or 30 fps) at which the video content was originally shot, and using this knowledge, automatically adjust the video (if necessary) to create a better looking picture. See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also:


Modern Displays are tending to use 120 Hz scan rates. Modern scan rate converters often upgrade standard 60 Hz signals to 120 Hz. Some higher-end LCD sets are using 240 hz scan rates to overcome blurring during display of high speed action movies. SCMS - Serial copy management system, used to limit the number of copies that can be made from copies. SD - Standard Definition (DVD) - a maximum of . If the TV has a vertical resolution of less than , but it can handle signals (even though signals with higher resolutions will be downconverted to fit the display's resolution), the TV is considered a Standard Definition TV (SDTV). SDMI - Secure Digital Music Initiative.


If you Cable TV provider uses SWITCHED DIGITAL BROADCAST, as Time-Warner/ Road Runner does in the RTP, NC area, you MUST use a TUNING ADAPTER in addition to your CableCARD to properly view Digital TV and digital HDTV signals. T-W provides a Cisco STA-1520 Tuning Adapter along with my . Furthermore, your M-CARD (Multi-Stream ) will NOT retain it's decryption and activation codes without the Tuning Adapter. SDB = Switched Digital Broadcast = SDV = SWB SDV = Switched Digital Video = SDB = SWB SWB = Switched Broadcast = SDB = SDV SDTV - ATSC Digital TV = DTV. This is "SDTV" - Standard Definition TV - the new, (digital) TV Standard; replaces NTSC Analog TV. THIS IS NOT , but it is Digital video.

SDV - Switched Digital Video - an historical perspective

SDB = Switched Digital Broadcast = SDV = SWB SDV = Switched Digital Video = SDB = SWB SWB = Switched Broadcast = SDB = SDV


SecuROM is Sony's CD-ROM and DVD-ROM copy protection. SED - surface-conduction electron-emitter display. Both Toshiba and Canon recently (1/2006) demonstrated this technology, which could provide CRT-like image quality from extremly thin flat panels. Light is emitted by phosphor dots that coat the inside of the screen. These dots are masked by green, blue, or red filters, which is used to display a single pixel. SED uses a grid of emitters to fire electons directly at the desired phosphor dot. A SED panel is thin, only a few centimeters. Because SED only sends power to dots needed for displaying the image, SED consumes less power than most other types of displays. Serial Digital Interface (SDI) - A professional digital video connection format using a 270 Mbps transfer rate.

Slingbox by Sling Media

Wikipedi - "The Slingbox is a TV streaming device that enables users to remotely view their home's cable, satellite, or personal video recorder (PVR) programming from an Internet-enabled computer with a broadband Internet connection"

Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR)

The ratio of pure signal to extraneous noise, in Decibels (dB>). Also referrred to as S/N.

PS3 - (Sony) Play Station 3

The PlayStation3 has built-in Wi-Fi, huge storage for games, add-ons, music, videos, photos. Its built-in Blu-ray player shows HD movies at 1080P. The included Blu-ray DVD player is still considered one of the best, but it has no remote control, and does NOT do a good job up regular DVDs to higher resolution (so all the PS3 forums say - THEIR OPINIONS).


SPDC - Self-Protecting Digital Content

"Cryptography Research's" proposed self-protecting digital Content scheme. At startup, each playback device loads SPDC decryption software into a security virtual machine. In the event that the security handling software is "cracked" (defeated), new SPDC software, that operates differently, can be created for managing newer DVDs - this ability to change the decryption techniques would allow content vendors to side-step known decryption cracks. In other words, your expensive HD playing device might no longer be allowed to play new HD content. The ramifications, as I understand them, are horrible. If "Joe" cracks the decryption algorithm for your "expensive gadget", the content vendors could make your "expensive gadget" not able to play any new HD content, forcing you to buy another, newer, "expensive gadget", even though you did not circumvent the SPDC decryption software. The managers of "SPDC" software would include a list of black-listed HD devices in their HD media. If your HD equipment's decryption software was cracked by anyone, and the makers of SPDC software found out, they could blacklist your device, making it useless for playing newer HD media. SPDC is available on Sony's Blu-ray (of course), but NOT on HD-DVD. S/PDIFThe Sony/Philips digital interface, employed as a 75 Ohm RCA-type digital output on transports or CD/DVD players.



DIRECT RADIATING - any speaker that's not a Dipole, Bipole, or Omnipolar. Most speakers were direct-radiating until THX recommended Dipole surround speakers BIPOLAR Speakers radiate sound equally, and in phase (same polarity) in two directions. DIPOLAR speakers radiate sound equally in two directions, but with opposite polarity (phase), creating a diffuse sound. Dipolar speakers are recommended by THX for surround sound channels in home theater systems. OMNIPOLAR speakers radiate sound equally in all directions (trademarked). ELECTROSTATIC speakers have a large, flat plastic panel that moves back and forth between the positive and negative poles. Requires an AC outlet for power. HYBRID ELECTROSTATIC speakers use a cone woofer to increase base response. PLANAR-MAGNETIC speakers differ from Electrostatic speakers, except that they use metal ribbons instead of panels and don't need to be plugged into an electrical outlet. Also called RIBBON speakers.

SCART - 21-pin EuroSCART AV connector

SCART was developed by the French and is the most common AV connector used in Europe.


Sprites these days refer to two or threee-dimensional computer generated figures integrated into video content. SQUEEZED VIDEO - same as . See also: See also:

SRS Labs

STB - Set Top Box (usually a TV tuner or cablebox, these days, probably an HDTV tuner). STB Really means any box that is electronically connected before your TV (the STB's output is the TV's input).

Streaming Audio and Video

One of my friends has had great luck with TechSmith's Camtasia - (see the above link) or SUPER was recommended by PCmagazine:

Super 16 mm film

Was frequently used for shooting Television shows.

Surge Protectors

Surge Protectors are supposed to protect your fragile (computers) and expensive electronics from surges and spikes (abnormally high voltages) in your house electrical wiring. There are many causes of surges and spikes, the most destructive of which are caused by lightening strikes on or, more likely, near an electrical line. While Surge Protectors can work wonders, a direct lighting strike will probably still destroy all of your electronic equipment (that is plugged on, even if it is turned off). In really severe lightening storms, you may wish to unplug expensive ectronic equipment. FEATURES TO LOOK FOR IN A SURGE PROTECTOR: 1] The more JOULES (current) that your surge proectector can handle, the better. The joule is a mathematical equation of Voltage x Amps x Time. Watts = Joules/Sec=Amps x Volts 2] The LOWER the CLAMPING VOLTAGE, the better. (This is the voltage at which the surge protector starts operating, sending the surge to ground. 3] The FASTER the Clamping Time, the better. Clamping time is the speed at which the product reacts to a surge, and starts protecting your electronic equipment. (Unfortunately, I see fewer and fewer companies listing the Clamping Time of their products.) Most users of Surge Protectors buy "small" units that are plugged into wall outlets. The equipment to be protected is then plugged into the surge protector. There are also , which provide some protection for all electrical equipment in the house. In my opinion, while these whole house protectors are very useful, I feel that they do not react as quickly as the GOOD outlet type of surge protector (my guess, 0 - ,000). Since I can't find any specs for the Clamping Time of the units I have looked at lately, I can not really confirm this personal opinion. NOTE: IT TOOK ABOUT TEN (10) MINUTES TO INSTALL THE WHOLE HOUSE SURGE PROTECTOR - A VERY EASY JOB (MY PERSONAL OPINION). We are using some 0 Surge Protectors for our computers, and a 0 unit for the large TV. I have also added a . We also use s with s for the computers, to add more protection, and to provide power to the computers when the electricity goes out. I use cheaper, even smaller, single outlet 15 AMP surge protectors for my microwaves, refrigerators, bread makers, dish washers, and other such things.So many of today's appliances contain small computers. YOU CAN ALSO RENT SURGE PROTECTORS FROM PROGRESS ENERGY, But why? This my OPINION only. You may not agree. Caveat emptor: I think that it is cheaper to buy your own, rather than rent. See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also:

WHOLE HOUSE Surge Protectors

Unlike the that plug into an electrical outlet, and protect a few pieces of electronic equipment, Whole House Surge Protectors hook up to both 120 volt lines in your circuit breaker box, and provide some protection to all electrical equipment connected to the house circuit breaker box. In my opinion, while these whole house protectors are very useful, I feel that they do not react as quickly as the GOOD outlet type of surge protector (my guess, 0 - ,000). Since I can't find any specs for the Clamping Time of the units I have looked at lately, I can not really confirm this personal opinion. We have recently installed an Intermatic PanelGuard whole house residential Surge Protector, model , normally about $ 140 ?? NOTE: IT TOOK ABOUT TEN (10) MINUTES TO INSTALL THE WHOLE HOUSE SURGE PROTECTOR A VERY EASY JOB (MY PERSONAL OPINION). I have seen no reviews of any surge protectors, so I don't know how good this one is - at least it is heavy. It is supposed to handle 60,000 AMPs per voltage leg: 1] Hot to Ground 2] Common to Ground 3] Hot to Common For a total of 180,000 AMPs of surge protection. Since it uses 14 gage wire for it's connections (like all of the other such products, I think???), it obviously can only shunt excess voltage (surges) for a short time. It has a NEMA 4 metal enclosure (I'll have to track down that specification). It meets NEC Section 285 (25 kAIC fault currrent level). Protection Modes: L1-G, L1-N, L2-G, L2-N, N-G and L1-L2. Clamping Voltage: 330 Volts Peak L-N 330 Volts Peak L-G 330 Volts Peak N-G 660 Volts Peak L-L I noticed that Home Depot has (a different) one in their catalog. See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also:


a video connection scheme in which the brightness and color video information are delivered on separate wires.

S-VHS (Super VHS)


sYCC is simply YCC created from . sYCC saves file size for otherwise huge TIF files. It makes no sense to select it for JPG since JPG already incorporates it for free. . Sync - A video signal whose information is used to synchronize the picture for displaying correctly. TDEL - Thick-film Dialectric Electroluminescent technology. Toronto based iFire has developed a 2.2 pound, 37 inch Flat Panel Display using TDEL.


The process of transferring motion picture film to an electronic format. terrestrial tuners - over-the-air () tuner (as opposed to a Cable or Satellite tuner) Note that OTA digital TV stations may broadcast on either UHF or VUF bands - If you are purchasing an antenna for OTA (terrestrial) reception you probably (depends on the stations you ar trying to receive) need a very good antenna capable of receiving both UHF and VHF frequencies. You should run RG-6 cable, I use Quad shielded RG-6 [RG6Q], sometimes called RG-7. NOTE - that you need a different sized connector for quad RG-6 than you do for orginary RG-6. "RG-6 is available in four different types designed for various applications. In addition, the core may be copper clad steel (CCS) or bare solid copper (BC). "Plain" or "house" RG-6 is designed for indoor or external house wiring. "Flooded" cable is infused with waterblocking gel for use in underground conduit or direct burial. "Messenger" may contain some waterproofing but is distinguished by the addition of a steel messenger wire along its length to carry the tension involved in an aerial drop from a utility pole. "Plenum" cabling is expensive and comes with a special Teflon-based outer jacket designed for use in ventilation ducts to meet fire codes. It was developed since the plastics used as the outer jacket and inner insulation in many "Plain" or "house" cabling gives off poison gas when burned." - RG6Q - QUAD SHIELDED RG6 COAX CABLE Make sure it has solid copper center conductor. Stuff I see in my Home Depot is copper coated steel which is not D approved (NOT my comment). You may need an antenna rotor, to rotate the antenna towards the direction of the transmitter. In some areas, "all" of the TV broadcast antennas wiil be in the same direction (lucky you), and in other areas, the antennas may by in vastly different directions, mandating some method of pointing your antenna to the transmitter, in-order-to receive stronger signals. You may need a broadband antenna mounted on your antenna pole (very near the incoming signal) to ensure enough signal strength. Some of these are made so that you can power them via the same RG-6 cable that you use to send the TV signal to your or . RG6A - Augmented RG6 COAX CABLE RG6A Coax Cable) Cat 6A (Augmented) bulk cable includes theCat following varieties: Cat 6A UTP (Unshileded Twisted Pair) Solid Conductor Riser Rated, Cat 6A UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) Plenum Rated, Cat 6A FTP Shielded Solid Conductor Riser Rated, Cat 6A FTP Shielded Plenum Rated, and Cat 6A FTP Shielded Stranded Conductor The TIA specifications for Cat 6A Ethernet Cable has limits on alien crosstalk in cabling systmes. Augmented Cat 6 Ethernet Cable has to operate at a minimum frequency of 500MHz fot. It helps future proof your network and supports 10 Gbit application up to a maximum distance of 100 meters on a 4-connector channel. RG-7 (Coax Cable) - comes Direct Burial (flooded), Tri-Shielded, Quad-Shielded and Low-loss, serial digital interface. One person's (Brian Mahony) experiences with "cutting the Cable":


THX is essentially an Audio quality certification invented by George Lucas. For equipment or CDs/DVDs to legally use the THX name and logo, the equipment (or media) must adhere to the THX standards. THX was invented for use in theaters but has been extended to Home Theater equipment. THX certification also requires adherence to more ridgid specifations regarding noise levels, frequency rollover values and other such things. Now (2007) there is also a for high definition video products. Check the March 2007 edition of Home Theater Magazine.

THX Loudness Plus

THX Loudness Plus works by realizing that the reference signal level used for movie mixing, is too loud for home use. THX Loudness Plus utilizes both THX Multichannel Spectrum Balancing and THX Dynamic Ambience Preservation to create the correct audio at low levels. licensed for Ultra2 Plus and Select2 Plus.

THX Select2

THX Surround EX

THX Surround EX is THX's implementation of decoding Dolby Digital EX. It requires a pair of Back Surround Sound speakers, along with the more normal Left and Right Surround Speakers (for a total of 7.1). The two back surround speakers output slightly different signals.

THX Ultra2

THX Ultra2 Certified products are engineered for rooms with a viewing distance of 12 feet and beyond.


Turn to Channel 500 for information on how to use your TW cable box. See also


As far as I know, TiVo is still using the file system. on a personal level, this greatly concerns me. Rivo created Macrovision and other DRM schemes - not sure I trust them with TiVo's future. This is my PERSONAL opinion. Rivo makes interactive TV guides that are used by 18 million or so TV subscribers. You may purchase TiVo's for Cable HDTV, FIOS and Digital OTA (Over-the-Air). Submit your IDEAS FOR TIVO DEVELOPERS, HERE.


Opening your TiVo voids your warranty. You MUST pull the TiVo's power cord before you open the unit. I just replaced the power supply on my TiVo licensed Chinese T2500 TiVo. I go the power supply from , along with the instructions. It was extremely easy to do. On computers (TiVos are computers) the one piece that fails the most often is the power supply, althogh I'm beginning to think that the Hard Drive is failing enve more often. USEFUL ACCESSORIES for TIVO: Since cableCARDs are superceded, You do NOT want to buy a device that used CableCARDs (My OPINION)(as they may disappear) - instead, you want a device that uses the newer "". HOWEVER, Tru2WAY seems to be still NOT available, so I'm having to stick with CableCARD (3/2012). USB200M, to connect my Tivo2 Series to my network. In my personal opinion, this is a piece of junk. As other owners have stated: it is so flimsy, mine broke when I moved the TiVo without carefully moving the ethernet cable at the same time. I replaced this broken Linksys USB200M adapter with a unit that I got from my local CompUSA (TigerDirect bought CompUSA last year [2008], and has renamed their local TigerDirect store to "CompUSA"). My replacement unit is the TRENDnet TU2-ET100 USB 2.0 to 10/100Mbps Fast Ethernet Adapter. MY ADVICE - DO NOT BUY THE LINKSYS USB200M USB to Ethernet Adapter EOP - ETHERNET over (houshold) POWER (wires): I am using various EOP solutions to hook my remote TiVo's to my Ethernet switch to allow TiVo to connect to the Internet.

Tivo's Series 4, TiVo Premiere, has been ANNOUNCED - 3/7/2010 & IS avalaible

TiVo is selling TiVo ROAMIO Digital Channel DVRs only

Includes builtin WiFi. A TiVo Romario OTA - Records EITHER 4 Digital or 4 (TW) Digital Cable Channels - my home office. Records digital OTA with an OTA HDTV antenna, OR add an M-CableCARD and record digital cable channels. ROAMIOs also come as 6-channel Digital Cable only Recorders: 1) The 1,000 HD hour, 6-digital cable channel recorders 2) The 3,000 HD hour, 6-digital cable channel recorders

TiVo announces new Fourth Generation TiVo (TiVo PREMIERE).

Supports digital cable, antenna (ATSC - a Digital source from antennae) and Verizon FiOS (Does not support satellite nor AT&T U-verse)

TiVo Minis

I'm using a TiVo Mini in my Exercise room - displays any of 4 TiVo Romario or 4 TiVo Elite Digital channels. I'm using a TiVo Mini in my Master Bedroom - displays any of 4 TiVo Romario or 4 TiVo Elite Digital channels. DIGITAL MEDIA TiVos ONLY - NO ANALOG SIGNALS: This TiVo IV (TiVo Premier) unit apparently uses (but it does NOT state that). It states: Inputs: Since it says it uses CableCard, it does not , apparently use the successor to Cablecard 2.0, . But then, only 50% of all cable viewers are expected to have the option for tru2way by 2013, so I guess that I would not wait for it. Time-Warner is not even on the list of vendors who have licensed tru2ay. CHECK WITH YOUR CABLE COMPANY/ Verizon FiOS TO SEE IF YOU CAN GET THE NEEDED CARD AND ENCRYPTION PASSWORD FROM THEM, BEFORE MAKING A PURCHASE. Premiere records up to 45 hours of HD programming; XL records up to 150 hours of HD programming Sources: Supports digital cable, antenna (ATSC) and Verizon FiOS (Does not support satellite or AT&T U-verse) Outputs: HDMI, Component video, Composite video, Optical audio, Analog audio Video output modes include: 480i, 480p, 720p, 1080i, 1080p Inputs: CableCARD support, Cable coax, Antenna coax Ethernet connection, USB 2.0 ports (2), E-SATA TiVo Wireless G Network Adapter support TiVo Series4 architecture ENERGY STAR certified Premiere XL is THX certified for exceptional sound and video quality is available Note - (I haven't tried to confirm the discount)

Tivo's Series 3

Tivo's new Series 3 allows recording of two HDTV signals at the same time, while watching a recorded show. The Series 3 handles and resolution. The Series 3 uses (optional) connections - no to Ethernet adapter needed. The Series 3 has . The Series 3 has no coaxial digital audio outputs. The Series 3 has two CableCARDS. You can add hard drives via the an data output.

Tivo's Series 2

TiVo Hacking & Hacking Books

Brosnan, John and Kyle Copeley @ Beginning TiVo Programming WROX 978-0-47005427-7 Hagen, William von Hacking the TIVO. Second Edition Thomson Course Technology w/bootable CD 1-59200-481-4 Krikorian, Raffi (this is my personal favorite) TiVo Hacks O'Reilly 0-596-00553-9 Rathbone, Andy TiVo for Dummies AW

TOLED - Transparent OLEDs

Transparent OLED dispalys are about 2 years from production (6/2006). The TOLED display is fairly transparent, like a window, but becomes a Monitor/TV when turned on. TOSlink Optical audio cable connection - all optical audio connectors for the USA are supposed to be 6 mm (square). This 6mm size is the larger TOSlink connector, not the smaller, "mini-optical connector. (I'm told that since all connectors in the USA are supposed to be 6mm, there should be no confusion.)


A transflective liquid crystal display is a liquid crystal display (LCD) that reflects and transmits light (transflective = transmissive + reflective) - Wikipedia


TVL - TV line - same as horizontal scan lines. UHDV - Ultra High Definition Video

UD - Ultra-definition TV

UD starts at (resolution) and includes (2/2012). Currently there is no 4K nor 8K content, except for Digital cinema video, but UD TVs and some Blu-Ray players can to quasi-4K resolution. LG will release an 84 inch UD TV in 2012.

UDF - Universal Disk Format

A standard designed to create a usable subset of the ISO/IEC 13346 recordable, random-access file system.

UDF Bridge

A combination of UDF and ISO 9660 file system formats that provides backward-compatibility with ISO 9660 readers.

UDI - Unified Display Interface

Unified Display Interface (UDI) (designed for computers) is a new, proposed interface specification designed for HDTV and PC usage. UDI is expected to replace the obsolete VGA specification, and to be compatible with existing HDMI and DVI standards. The specification is expected in 2Q2006. UDI SIG has been formed to promote and define UDI.


Upconverting is the process of interpolating additional, computer generated video display lines between existing, actual video display lines. The process adds apparent quality to the display video. Note that upconverting and re-sizing (changing from a 4x3 to a 16x9 size, for example) are difficult tasks to do accurately. A really good upconverter is expensive to create, adding to the cost of your HDTV (but well worth the investment). Note that sometimes upconverting will yield a picture that looks worse than the original, lower resolution video (especially if the upcoverter is not robust enough). Upconverting changes a video signal from one scanning rate to a signal with a higher scanning rate. The process of upconverting/downconvertiong and resizing is typically done by what is referred to as a . See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also:


The main purpose of a UPS is to power electric equipment when your house or office electric power goes out. While we expect our electric power to be 120 volts AC, at 60 Hertz (cycles per second), and without spurious electric signals (interference), The truth is, our electric power is often dirty (contains interference), may vary considerbly from 120 volts, may be higher or lower than 60 Hertz (cycles per second), and subject to spikes, surges, sags, and brownouts - In other words, your electric power may be very hard on your computers and other electronic equipment. A UPS is an "Uninterruptable Power Supply". Cheaper units will consist almost entirely of a battery(ies) and an inverter to convert the battery's DC (direct Current) power to 120 Volt, 60 cycle AC (alternating current), close to what you have in your house. Better units will include some amount of , and some kind of filtering to lessen the impact of and interference. Some UPS' incorporate AVR - Automatic Voltage Regulation - to adjust the input voltage up or down, as necessary, to produce close to 120 volts. AVR should prolong the life of delicate electronic equipment, while eleviating the effects of brownouts, mild over-voltages, lightening strikes, etc.. No matter how good they are, no UPS/AVR can completely protect your equipment against all possible problems, but they can really help. There are a lot of good brands and models of UPS/AVRs, Personally, I am using both CyberPower and APC AVRs. My CyberPowers cost less, produce more watts and run hotter than do my APC units. I like both brands.


You can get replacment batteries at Batteries Plus. CyberPower likes to use HR9 batteries - they produce more current (a good thing), but are harder to find. HR9 batteries can produce 9 AMPs per hour. Most brands of UPS', in my experience, seem to use batteries rated at 7 AMPs per hour. I found that I had to order HR9 batteries from my local Batteries Plus, but that they carried a large supply of 7 AMP per hour replacment batteries, which should work fine (instead of HR9s), but will shorten the amount of run time the UPS provides (ones that take HR9 batteries). The 7 AMPs per hour batteries ARE working fine - of course, when I'm running on these batteries, I get less current (amps) than with the original HR9 batteries. I am using: 1] (produces 950 watts at 120 volts, so they say) 2] (produces 865 watts. so they say, at 120 volts) 3] CyberPower If you are in a hurry, you can get replacement batteries at nation wide . NOTE that currently (11/23/2009) Batteries Plus does not have all of the correct amperage batteries, for example, they did not have 9 AMP/hour batteries OR 9 AMP/hour batteries that I needed for some of more more robust AVRs. Batteries Plue (9/23/2009) DID tell me that they will be carrying 9 AMP/hour batteries. In regards to installing an 8 AMP/hour battery instead of the CPS1250AVR'S 9 AMP/hour batteries, I found this on the Internet: Within the specifications of the UPS, the UPS should try and keep the output voltage constant as the battery's output voltage decreases. The current from the battery will have to increase since the volt-amps need from the battery is, more or less, a constant for a given volt- amps output. As the current increases, the voltage drops even further due to circuit resistance (our dear friend Ohm and his law). At some point the UPS should decide that the voltage from the battery is too low and give up. So, yes, an 8Ah battery will provide less run-time, but it's not like you'll get 1/9th less runtime (9Ah versus 8Ah), probably something closer to 1/5th less since voltage drop is related to the amount of charge remaining, and you're reducing the charge remaining faster. I'd have to sit down and do a bit of calculus to get a better estimate. My recollection, and it's been a while, is that "amp hours" is measured to when the output voltage drops to 10.5 volts under some constant load. If you want a better idea, see if you can find the specifications the manufacturer used to calculate the amp-hours for each battery. That might give you a clue. Quote: Please let me know if I am not correct in my understanding now. Thank you very much for your reply tallgirl ! Nope, your understanding is correct. The only remaining issue is that the UPS charging circuit is designed for a specific rate of charge, and that's typically linked to the battery's capacity. Since your battery has an 11% smaller capacity, rather than, say, 50% smaller, I can't see there being a major problem. But then, I'm not the UL, UPS manufacturer, or anyone else who could say there isn't an actual problem. Lots of UPSes do not function well on non-sinewave (they don't output true sine wave AC power) electric generators. One way around this, is to use a line double conversion UPS - this type always runs off of the battery while it charges the battery. There is no switching lag when the power goes out, because they are already running on the battery. These are usually more expensive that non double conversion models, generate more heat, and are less efficient as they always convert the input line AC to DC, then take the DC battery output and convert that into AC for you electic device. I've seen a lot of Internet talk about the problem of NON double conversion UPSs staying on battery power when a home generator is supplying the AC power - my APC 1500 KVA unit has this problem. Some of my other friends are not having this problem, and are successfully using a multitude of brands of UPSs on their electric generators. An online quote I saw: "have a 12KW Generac running Propane and once the freqency was locked in at 60Hz [i]under load[/i] I had no problems. In fact, the APC units I had were giving me fits until I reduced their sensitivity, but the E3200 had no such problems.

APC Back-UPS RS 1500VA/865W

This APC UPS/AVR has a three position Sensitivity Setting, factory set to the Medium Setting, according to the owner's manual, which seems to contradict my experiences (my voltages should have allowed the use of the HIGH Sensitivity Setting). Instead, my APC UPS would NOT run on my Generac Generator AT ALL. SENSITIVITY Input Voltage range USE WHEN LOW 78 - 150 VAC Input voltage is extremely high or low - NOT recommended for Computer Loads. MEDIUM 83 - 147 VAC If UPS frequently goes "on-battery". HIGH 88 - 144 VAC Connected equipment is sensitive to Voltage Fluctuations. I had to set my APC Back-UPS RS 1500VA (w/AVR) to LOW SENSITIVITY, to allow the UPS to run on my Generac natrual gas generator, which NEVER went below 105 volts AC, nor above 119 VAC, and stayed at 59 Hz. My Three CyberPower UPS/AVR units had no trouble on the generator. See also: See also: See also: See also: See also:

VBI - Vertical Blanking Interval

VBI lines are used to allow the electron scanning beam to return to the top and are used to contain other information. VBR - Variable Bit Rate (encoding/decoding)


Video Encoding Invisable Light - A means of plugging the (whereby analog equipment could be used to process HD content), regardless of the use of ). VEIL-I was used for toys. VEIL provides . VEIL modifies the of a video signal, essentially creating a "zero" or "one" based on the brightness of the video signal. This brightness variation allows analog equipment to recognize certain patterns, i.e., to recognize that a VRAM exists in the analog signal, and to block processing of the video signal. Now, how do you make this retroactive?

VFW - Video For Windows

VFW disappeared about the time of Windows98 VGA connector = RGB = D-sub 15 = mini sub D15 = mini D15 = three-row 15 pin DE-15 See also See also


VHS's (a video tape cormat) 240 lines of vertical resoluion is, now days, pathetic.


VIDEO RESOLUTIONS: Old style NTSC screens have 4:3 ratios, Wide Screen HDTVs have 16x9 ratios and Wide Screen Computer Monitors have 16x10 Ratios. 300 pixels x 360 pixels - VHS quality - standard VCRs (not S-VHS) 320 pixels x 200 pixels - old, NTSC resolution 320 pixesl x 256 pixels - old PAL resolution 460 pixels x 360 pixels - Analog broadcast television - analog () stations 480 pixels x 270 pixels - (126k) 16:9 ratio WQVGA 560 pixels x 360 pixels - Laserdisc quality - they usually don't look good on an HDTV 640 pixels x 200 pixels - old, NTSC resolution 640 pixels x 256 pixels - old PAL resolution 640 pixels x 480 pixels - 480i or 480p - either interlaced (i) or progressive (p) 720 pixels x 360 pixels - DVD quality non-HD) 800 pixels x 500 pixels - one of the 16:10 Wide Screen Computer Monitors resolutions 800 pixels x 600 pixels - old PC resolution 1024 pixesl x 640 pixels - one of the 16:10 Wide Screen Computer Monitors resolutions 1024 pixels x 768 pixels - XGA/XVGA eXtended 1280 pixels x 720 pixels - 720i or 720p - DTV either or progressive (p) 1280 pixels x 800 pixels - one of the 16:10 Wide Screen Computer Monitors resolutions 1280 pixels x 960 pixels - a possible computer monitor resolution 1280 pixels x 1024 pixels - SXGA - a possible computer monitor resolution 1280 pixels x 1280 pixels - a possible computer monitor resolution 1440 pixels x 900 pixels - one of the 16:10 Wide Screen Computer Monitors resolutions 1600 pixels x 900 pixels - WSXGA 1600 pixels x 1200 pixels - UXGA, a possible computer monitor resolution 1680 pixels x 1050 pixels - WSXGA (also). A wide screen resolution 1920 pixels x 1080 pixels - 1080i or 1080p - DTV either interlaced (i) or 1920 pixels x 1200 pixels - one of the 16:10 Wide Screen Computer Monitors resolutions 2560 pixels x 1600 pixels - one of the 16:10 Wide Screen Computer Monitors resolutions MONITOR / PICTURE PIXEL RESOLUTIONS: Old style NTSC screens have 4:3 ratios, Wide Screen HDTVs have 16x9 ratios and Wide Screen Computer Monitors have 16x10 Ratios. QCIF = A display with 176 x 144 pixels - Quarter Common Intermediate Format. QVGA = A display with 320 x 240 pixel resolution. QXGA = A video resolution of 2048 x 1536. SVGA = A display with 800 x 600 pixel resolution. SXGA = A display with 1280 x 1024 pixel resolution. SXGA+ = Super XGA+ = 1400 x 1050 pixels. 16M colors. 8 MB video RAM required. VGA = A display with 640 x 480 pixel resolution. UXGA = Ultra XGA = 1600 x 1200 pixles. 16M colors. 8 MB video RAM required. WQVGA = A display with 480 x 270 pixels (126k) 16:9 ratio WSXGA = A display with 1600 x 900 OR 1680 x 1050 Pixels (Wide Super XGA) WXGA = A display with 1920 x 1080i pixel Resolution XGA = A display with 1024 x 768 pixel resolution. (monitor) VGA connector = RGB = D-sub 15 = mini sub D15 = mini D15 = three-row 15 pin DE-15





I have no personal experience with any of these. Be certain to get at least a 30 MHz per channel bandwidth. I have two friends who own these great Octavia Inc. switchers - one guy owns the (the HDMI Switch with TOSLINK Audio Routing will switch and merge Toslink Audio and DVI ouput into HDMI) and the other guy owns the . See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also: See also:


Viewing Angle

Viewing Angle effects how far people can be seated from directly in front of the Monitor and still be able to view a good picture. Many recommend a viewing angle of at least 140 degrees horizontal and 120 degrees vertical. The wider the viewing angles, the better.


The rule of thumb is to be 3,400 times the distance between the scan lines. For example, if you have a 50-inch TV, with a resolution of 1280 by 768, and the vertical height if the display area is 24.5 inches, then the ideal viewing distance is: (24.5/768) 3400 = 108.8 inches = about 9 feet. If you sit further back, you won't be able to resolve the detail. One potential problem when sitting too close to a bright TV is flicker. Flicker is the physical perception of the actual flashing of the light source. Normally, TVs flash to quickly for most people to notice. As TVs get brighter, we tend to notice flicker more. The human eye can better detect flicker in the periphery of your vision, than in the central viewing area (so too close may make flicker more obvious in the outer edges of our version. Many people can detect the 60 cycle refresh rate that is used for both HD and NTSC TV. Flicker can be reduced by three things: 1] Moving back from the TV (placing the image more in the center of your vision) 2] Reducing the overall brightness of the display 3] Increasing the refresh rate (not an option on TVs). (- Digital TV and Sound)


Uses an HQV chip specially developed for Runco by Silicon Optix, makers of the realta HQV video chip.

VMD - Versatile Multilayer Disc - another HD DVD format

VMD uses a red laser (unlike Blu-ray and HD-DVD) and multiple layers to record an eventual 100 MB of data. New Medium Enterprises (NME) has lined up six Indian, and some German and Chinese film companies to provide DVD content. Players in the US will be sold under the NME name. VOD - Video On Demand (streaming feature)

VR - DVD Video Recording Mode

VR Mode allows editing the DVD directly, to change the Title, Menu and Menu Color. Space formerly used by deleted scenes and titles becomes available whne you reformat the DVD. VR recorded discs can only be played on VR capable players. VRAM - Rights Assertion Mark, used to prevent analog equipment from processing data that was originally distributed as HD content.


Watermarking is a means of embedding hidden but detectable data. Bill H.R. 4569 would implement VEIL-II (Video Encoding Invisable Light). If Bill H.R. 4569 is passed, all analog equipment would be required to detect and prevent recording of video signals containing the Veil Rights Assertion Mark (VRAM). This means that analog equipment will not be able to process data that originated as a Veil protected HD signal. VEIL-I was used for toys. "Galaxy" is an earlier watermark. WAV - WAV was a joint development effort between IBM and Microsoft. Any program that plays audio files should be able to play Windows .wav files. WAV files are not compressed. WAV files use an average bit rate of 1411.2Kbps. Note that the typical MP3 files bit rate is 128Kbps, creating a much smaller file. Widescreen TV - aspect ratio of 1.78:1 [also called "16 by 9"])

WiDi - Intel's Wireless Display Connection

WiDi let's Notebook computers with certain Intel chips wireless send conect (via WiFi) to their TVs (requires an adapter or built -in WiDi support for the TV). WiDi technology is Intel proprietary and it requires a current Intel CPU. WiDi Adapters are made by , Belkin and D-LINK. I have seen a lot of good reports on the NetGear Push2TV (). The NetGear PTV2000 even has AV Composite output for older TVs (along with HDMI).


WIPO - World Intellectual Property Organization. WIPO Copyright Treaty WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty (December 1996) Uncompressed 720p video requires a transfer rate of approximately 1.3Gbps. Uncompressed 1080i video requires a transfer rate of approximately 1.5Gbps. Uncompressed 1080p video requires a transfer rate of approximately 3.0Gbps.


Radiospire's WiredFreeHD uses UWB technology and supposedly can achieve speeds of up to 3 Gbps and 1080p signals for a 25 foot distance. Uses Ferquency range or 3.1 to 4.8 GHz. ()


WirelessHD will stream up to three 1080p signals at distances up to 32 feet via a 60 Gigahertz bandwidth. The Specification should be finished by Spring 2007, and products due out in late 2008. The 1st generation products should be able to transmit 1080p to a range of 32 feet. 15Gbps is the expected 2nd generation speed. () Participants include LG, Matsushita, NEC, Samsung, Sony Toshiba and SiBeam.

Wireless High definition Interface (WHDI)

WHDI was created by and supposedly can broadcast uncompressed 1080i or 720p (1.5 Gbps) over 100 feet, utilizing a 20-MHz portion of the 5 GHz band. WHDI can also broadcast 1080p (3 Gbps) in a 40-Mhz channel. Pixelworks and Motorola are working with Amimon. Products are expected by the end of 2007. Some products were demoed at the 2007 CES show. ()

Wireless HDMI

Wireless HDMI utilizes Ultra Wide Band (UWB), suports a theoretical 480Mbps and a new compression scheme. Wireless HDMI utilizes WiMedia, a UWB standard created by the (Microsoft, Nokia, NEC and others). Wireless HDMI competes with . WMA - Windows Media Audio - Allows full DRM capabilities WMAPro - WMV - Windows Media High Definition Video - a Microsoft HD format. Needs a fast PC (12/2005).


Since there are currently (5/2006) no 1080p video sources available for public use, Hewlett-Packard invented a technology that we call wobulation, to simulate 1080p video content (to fool the human eye). HP first used wobulation to improve the resolution of 720p DLP displays. Wobulation works by dividing each image frame into sub-frames. Pixels from the first sub-frame are displayed and then, a very short time later (fractions of a second), pixels from second sub-frame are shifted a minute amount, sideways, and then displayed so that they seem to overlap the first sub-frame's pixels. Wobulation effectively interlaces horizontal pixels, resulting in two effects: 1] The image appears to have twice it's real horizontal resolution - allowing the use of cheaper 960x1080 pixel Digital Micromirror Devices (DMDs). 2] The image appears a bit softer than it would otherwise. Samsung's WiseLink supports USB 2.0 (and may be just that, USB 2.0).

XBOX 360 (Microsoft's gaming console)

The new (late 2010) XBOX 360 'S' (Slim) model has a builtin Wireless network controller. It can handle 802.11a/b or 802.11n BUT only at the 2.4 MHz frequency (not the expected 5.8 NHz frequency, or both 2.4 and 5.8 MHz, SO ENSURE that your wireless access point will handle the 2.4 MHz frequency. Microsoft also does not tell you the MAC address of the wireless controller, but you can find that out from your wireless . I STRONGLY SUGGEST THAT YOU USE BOTH A () PASSWORD and FILTER OUT ALL OTHER (via your wireless router) to help lessen the chance that your computer gets hacked. Your wireless router's instructions will help you set up some wireless security. KINECT (for XBOX 360) RESPONDS TO HOW YOU MOVE: XBOX FORUMS: XBOX GADGETS / ACCESSORIES / ADD-ONS:


Here are some "facts", that I believe to be true at this (12/24/2010) time. These are either facts or opinions, and the hardware and software is constantly changing (so this information may be out of date quickly): XBOX 360 ========= 0) It is strongly rumored that Microsoft will issue a firmware change for the Kinect cameras to double their resolution, so that they can better track what the player is doing. 2) Almost all games are first developed for the XBOX 360, then ported to PS3 3) Online membership / year. 4) Does NOT have a Blueray DVD player (PS3 does) 5) Uses WiFi (wireless ethernet connection 6) 7) 8) Seems to have the best of the hands-free (a la Kinect) - 12/24/2010 9) Can output (not 'p') 10) Still has more games than PS3, but PS3 is adding more PS3 only games 11) 3.2 GHz Xenon processor 12) 3 dual-threaded cores 13) Maximum 77 GFlops 14) Requires Microsoft proprietary HDD format (have to buy HDD from Microsoft) 15) optimized to run at 16) The computational power of the system itself sports the equivalent of 1 teraflops 17) The previous version (before the new 'S' [slim]) model) ran too hot, sometimes, causing (a permanent) RED RING of DEATH (CPU failure) 18 The largest that I have seen for sale for the XBOX 360 is 250 GB PS3 - Sony PLAYSTATION 3 ======================== 1) Requires the DVD to be in the optical drive to run the game. 2) 3) is NOT 4) Online "membership" is free 5) Poor hands-free (a la Kinect) - OPINIONS 6) Fairly good Bluray player - HAS NO REMOTE The Bluray player does upscaling, but opions on many forums state that it does a poor job of (converting lower resolutions to higher, such as 1080i). 7) (includes functioning CEC for controlling other devices) 8) The computational power of the system itself sports the equivalent of 2 teraflops 9) Can output 10) 3.2 GHz Cell processor 11) 7 single-threaded cores (plus 1 backup core) 12) Maximum 230 GFlops 13) Can utilize any SATA drive - can buy from any vendor. 14) Seems to have slightly better graphics display 15) "PS3 seems to add extra lightning to scenes to hide poorer textures" (opinions from forums - I have not been able to compare them) 16) optimized to run at (can also output and , via downscaling) 17) The largest that I have seen for sale for the PS3 is 320 GB

XCP - Extended Copy Protection

Sony has been using First 4's XCP (Extended Copy Protection) software since early 2005 as a copy protection mechanism for some of its music CDs, according to Sony spokesperson John McKay. He could not say how many of Sony's CDs currently use the XCP software, but he said it is one of two digital rights management productsused by Sony. The other is SunnComm's MediaMax software, he said.

XCP2 Copy Protection

XCP2 is content protection software that was used by SONY BMG Music Entertainment on some audio CDs during 2005 in the US.

XM Satellite Radio

XM broadcasts high-quality audio signals via satellite, to it's paying customers. It has no commercials. competes with .

XMB - Xross Media Bar interface

XMB is a TV-centric user interface for digital home networks based on DLNA industry standards. SONY has demoed sets with XMB interfaces.


Extended Video YCC color space for video applications. xvYCC expands the number of available colors to about 1.8 times that of existing (6/2006) HDTV signals. It is based on the Munsell Color Cascade system accepted by the IEC in October 2005. The IEC indicates that the expanded colour gamut may be included into an expanded definition of the ATSC HDTV ITU-R BT.709 colour standard rather than becoming an entirely new standard. BUT, other documentation states that HDMI 1.3 adopts use of the IEC 61966-2-4 color standard, commonly called xvYCC (shorthand for Extended YCC Colorimetry for Video Applications). is required to distribute xvYCC.

YCbCr (or YCrCb)

A component digital video signal containing one luma and two chroma components. DVD-Videos MPEG-2 encoding is based on YCbCr signals. Uses ITU-R BT.601


YCC is just a shorter way of saying YCrCb. YCC is video terminology that's been around for decades. It's new only to photographers. It's old hat to video design engineers. It's already inside your TV, every JPG and every color video device ever made. A variant has been in Photoshop forever as the Lab (CIE Lab) color space. xvYCC is possible due to the use of LEDs or lasers as their light source. YCC transmits or represents the three Red, Green and Blue () channels as a luminance (Y) channel (Y) and two color-difference channels, Cr and Cb. The advantage of YCC over RGB is that it can reduce overall file size by reducing resolution of the color channels without altering the apparent resolution image, since the main Y (luminance) signal is untouched. This allows better images for the same file size. See also: See also: See also: YELLOW BOOK - Commonly called CD-ROM. Extended the Red Book compact disc format to include computer digital data.

YPrPb - Component (video) inputs

YPrPb is also referred to as YPbPr, PrPbY>, and PbPrY. Y, Pr, Pb: Refers to the color video output jacks on DVD players with component video. Component Video consists of three video cables, they are usually colored Red, Blue and Green. Component video can carry a better video signal than S-Video, but is not quite as good as or . YPrPb is numerically equivalent to the color space, but is designed for use in analog systems whereas YCbCr is for digital video. Y - GREEN Connector - Y - is the Luminance (Luma), which is the brightness and gray scale portion of the signal. Pr - RED Connector - CR - is the RED portion of the signal minus the luminance element. Pb - BLUE Connector - CB - is the BLUE portion of the signal minus the luminance. These (YPrPb) require less bandwidth than the R,G, B signals. Benefit: Requires less processing and combining, produces better image quality, and reduces chance of noise in the signal compared to traditional R, G, B signals.



iTunes to sell all EMI (except Beatles) songs WITHOUT DRM. You may be interested in Cell phone owners will be allowed to break software locks on their handsets in order to use them with competing carriers under new copyright rules announced Wednesday. Jon Lech Johansen's Web site, "So Sue Me," reflects the famed hacker's philosophy. Now he's up against Apple. Warner Home Video just recently (10/2006) filed a patent to develop a triple-layer DVD disc that can contain a movie in three formats: 1] HD-DVD 2] BLU-RAY and 3] normal DVD.

Windows CE Multimedia

See also:
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I am NOT Responsible for any Errors - Use at your own risk