Postcard sent in June 1910
The (from svástika) is a that generally takes the form of an equilateral cross, with its four arms bent at 90 degrees in either right-facing (卐) form or its mirrored left-facing (卍) form. The Swastika (also known outside the as the Hakenkreuz, gammadion cross, cross cramponnée, croix gammée, fylfot, or tetraskelion) (as a character 卐 or 卍) is an ancient Indo-European religious originating from the Ukraine, that generally takes the form of an equilateral with four legs each bent at 90 degrees. It is considered to be a sacred and auspicious symbol in , , and and dates back at least 11,000 years.
Archaeological evidence of swastika-shaped ornaments dates from the period and was first found in the , .
The (, "") became a popular symbol of luck in the Western world in the early 20th century, as it had long been in Asia, and was often used for ornamentation. The adopted the symbol in the 1920s, and its use in Western countries faded after the Nazi association became dominant in the 1930s. In recent decades many public swastikas have been removed or covered over, although others have been deliberately retained as part of debate about historical preservation.
BackgroundThe aviator (1878–1964) wearing a swastika square medallion in 1912. The symbol was popular as a good luck charm with early aviators. A swastika was also painted on the inside of the .
The discovery of the group in the 1790s led to a great effort by European archaeologists to link the pre-history of European people to the hypothesised ancient "" (variously referring to the or the ). Following his discovery of objects bearing the swastika square in the ruins of , consulted two leading scholars of the day, and . Schliemann concluded that the Swastika square was a specifically Indo-European symbol, and associated it with the ancient migrations of Proto-Indo-Europeans. He connected it with similar shapes found on ancient pots in Germany, and theorised that the swastika square was a "significant religious symbol of our remote ancestors", linking Germanic, Greek and Indo-Iranian cultures. Later discoveries of the motif among the remains of the Hittites and of ancient seemed to confirm this theory, but the symbol was also known for its use by indigenous American Indians as well as Eastern cultures.
By the early 20th century it was used worldwide and was regarded as a symbol of good luck. The swastika's worldwide use was well documented in an 1894 publication by the . The symbol appeared in many popular, non-political Western designs from the 1880s to the 1920s, with occasional use continuing into the 1930s.
Western use of the motif was subverted in the early 20th century after it was adopted as the emblem of the (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei). The swastika was used as a conveniently geometrical and eye-catching symbol to emphasise the so-called Aryan-German correspondence and instill racial pride. Since World War II, most have known the swastika as a Nazi symbol, leading to confusion about its sacred religious and historical status.
Several columns at the in are decorated with joint swastikas. The opened in 1915.
Sydney has two notable buildings using the swastika as an architectural element. The 1920s-era Dymocks Building in George Street, Sydney includes a multi-level shopping arcade, the tiled floors of which incorporate numerous left-facing swastikas. A brass explanatory sign, probably dating to World War II, is affixed to the wall near the elevator doors on each floor of the building, and refers to it as a "fylfot", emphasising that its use in the building pre-dates any Nazi connotations or usage. In nearby , the also has fylfot tiles in the front entrance area dating from the same period, with a plaque to explain the symbols.
BritainSwastikas on the wedding dress as symbols of luck, British colony, 1910
The Anglo-Indian author (1865–1936), who was strongly influenced by culture, used a swastika as his personal on the covers and flyleaves of many editions of his books, along with the elephant, signifying his affinity with India. With the rise of Nazism, Kipling ceased to use the swastika. One of his , "The Crab That Played With The Sea", included an elaborate full-page illustration by Kipling including a stone bearing what was called "a magic mark" (a swastika); some later editions of the stories blotted out the mark on the stone, but left the caption unaltered, leaving readers puzzled.
During the First World War, the swastika was used as the emblem of the .
The swastika was also used as a symbol by the in Britain, and worldwide. According to "Johnny" Walker, the earliest Scouting use was on the first Thanks Badge introduced in 1911.'s 1922 Medal of Merit design added a swastika to the Scouting as a token of good luck for the person receiving the medal. Like Kipling, Baden-Powell would have come across this symbol in India. During 1934 many Scouters requested a change of design because of the use of the swastika by the . A new British Medal of Merit was issued in 1935.
A bank in has refused to remove swastika mosaic tiles from the entry of a branch office constructed in 1927. A bank spokesperson replied to critics noting that "At that time, these symbols were commonly used as architectural decoration."
Located on the , on the northern edge of in West Yorkshire there is a swastika-shaped pattern engraved in a stone, known as the . The figure in the foreground of the picture is a 20th-century replica; the original carving can be seen a little further away, at the centre-left of the picture.
There are both left- and right-facing swastikas on the war memorial at the entrance to in Scotland.
The in the mid-1920s adorned their dress with swastikas.
There is a Fylfot made into the brickwork on a building inside the factory in in Wales. It is unknown why the Fylfot was put on a brick but it has been suggested it was done so because it was an ancient Asian peace symbol. The current Broughton site which makes wings for the Airbus has a history of fighter plane construction going back to WWI.
The 's adopted a cruciform fylfot as opposed to the Nazi Swastika which was a reversed fylfot, which it used as a squadron badge. It was around since the earliest RAF in 1918 and was an emblem for the Ceylon Fighter Defence in 1939.
The headquarters in features engraved swastika facing both left and right. Constructed beginning in 1928, the building was finished in 1939, the same year Britain declared war on Nazi Germany. The architectural design had been finalized years before.
Many churches and cathedrals in the UK feature swastika motifs.
Canada73 Troy Street in Verdun, Montreal
is the name of a small residential community in , Canada, approximately 580 kilometres north of Toronto, and 5 kilometres west of , the town of which it is now part. The town of Swastika was founded in 1906. Gold was discovered nearby and the Swastika Mining Company was formed in 1908. The government of Ontario attempted to change the town's name during World War II, but the town resisted and many posted signs "The hell with . We came up with our name first!". The Swastika United Church is located in , as is the Swastika Public School, Swastika Fire Hall and Swastika Laboratories, which provides for the mining industry.
In , Nova Scotia, there was the team from 1905 to 1916, and their uniforms featured swastika symbols. There were also hockey teams named the Swastikas in , Alberta (circa 1916), and the in , British Columbia (circa 1922).
The in downtown , has a façade decorated with brickwork swastikas. Further north on , the Japanese cemetery in has several grave markers decorated with swastikas.
A repeating pattern of swastikas appeared on a few that were produced by commercial airlines from 1924–32.
There used to be a swastika brick pattern located outside at the top of a house located at 75–81 Troy Street, in , a borough of , Quebec. A picture of this house appears on page 138 of Hélène-Andrée Bizier's Une Histoire du Québec en photos (2006, Éditions Fides).
The swastika was also used as border art for the weekly pet health column in the newspaper in the early years of the 20th century.
The Danish brewery company used the swastika as a logo from the 19th century until the middle of the 1930s, when it was discontinued because of association with the Nazi Party in neighbouring Germany. However, the swastika carved on elephants at the entrance gates of the company's headquarters in in 1901 can still be seen today.
Blue swastika insignia as well as black swastika emblem of the and the flight mark 1918–1945
Present-day brigade marks of the Finnish Air Force staff and the both flag of the Training Air Wing and its flagpole even with three swastikas
In , the hakaristi (swastika) was used as the official national marking of the between 1918 and 1945 and also of the , anti-aircraft troops as a part of the air force and tank troops at that time. The swastika was also used by the organisation, Finnish paramilitary organisation for women, which was dissolved in 1944 according to the terms of the .
Finnish heraldry does not distinguish between and ; they both are called hakaristi ("hook-cross"). Most hakaristi devices are actually .
The Finnish Airforce units still wear a swastika on their . In addition, the shoulder insignia of the Airforce Headquarters bears a swastika design. In 1945, the Air Force changed its national emblem to a roundel but the use of swastika in some other insignia was continued. In 1958, the inaugurated the colours of the Air Force units which feature a swastika design. The latest colour of this pattern was inaugurated by president 25 October 2005 for the newly formed . Also the , responsible for training special forces, bears a swastika-like emblem () on its colour.
The swastika has not disappeared in Finnish medals and decorations. The decorations of the , designed by – who also designed the emblem of the Finnish Air Force and the Finnish flight mark in 1918 – bears a fylfot laid on a George's Cross. The President of Finland uses a Cross of Liberty in the personal flag. However, in the flag is only the Cross of Liberty of 3rd Class and overall, the highest Finnish decoration is the .
GermanySwastikas on helmets and trucks during the
The Swastika saw use by nationalist movements before Nazis emerged into prominence: the has photos from the 1920 showing using the symbol.
(founded in 1914), a major shipping company in Iceland, once used a variation on the swastika as their company logo. The appearance was similar to a blue on a white circle. Usage continued after World War II – in service from 1950 to 1972 had the symbol in a roundel on the ship's prow. Although they have since replaced their logo, the swastika remained on their old headquarters, located in downtown . When the hotel franchise bought the building, the company was banned from destroying the symbol since the building was on the list of historical sites in Iceland. A compromise was made when the company was allowed to cover the symbol with the numbers 1919 which was the year when the building was erected.
Ancient swastikas are found sparingly throughout Ireland, starting in the 5th-7th centuries AD.
In , Ireland, a laundry company known as the existed for many years in and (both on the river ) on the south side of the city. It was founded in 1888 as the Dublin Laundry Company. Upon the outbreak of World War II in 1939, the company's customers were concerned about the company's name. Accordingly, it was changed to "Swastika Laundry (1912) Ltd". The company's fleet of electric delivery vans were red, and featured a black swastika on a white background.
The business started in the early 20th century and continued up until recent times. The Laundry's tall chimneystack was emblazoned with a large white Swastika, a protected structure, which was clearly visible from the surrounding streets. The name and logo eventually disappeared when the laundry was absorbed into the Spring Grove company.
In his , the future Nobel Laureate, writes about a year spent living in the west of Ireland in the 1950s. While in Dublin before heading to Co. Mayo, he…
"was almost run over by a bright-red panel truck whose sole decoration was a big swastika. Had someone sold delivery trucks here, or did the Völkischer Beobachter still have a branch office here? This one looked exactly like those I remembered; but the driver crossed himself as he smilingly signalled to me to proceed, and on closer inspection I saw what had happened. It was simply the "Swastika Laundry", which had painted the year of its founding, 1912, clearly beneath the swastika; but the mere possibility that it might have been one of those others was enough to take my breath away."
In , too, the swastika (known as Fire Cross, : ugunskrusts, or Thunder Cross, : pērkonkrusts) was used as the marking of the between 1918 and 1934, as well as in insignias of some military units. It was also used as a symbol by the Latvian fascist movement , as well as by other organisations.
Latvian left-facing swastika or Thunder Cross dates back to . It is widely seen scratched on the surfaces like rocks, weapons and pottery as a protector sign. To avoid diplomatic embarrassment, Latvian officials were asked by not to put swastikas on mittens and other gifts to delegates at a summit in the country in 2006.
The iron balconies of the building facing Veiten in Bergen are also decorated with swastikas. One may think they date back from the war, as they face the old Gestapo headquarters in Bergen, but they are actually twenty years older.
PolandThe highlander cross was the sign of Polish 21st and 22nd Mountain Infantry Divisions Karłowicz's Stone in the Tatra Mountains.
Since the early the sign of the swastika was well established among all lands. Known as swarzyca, it was primarily associated with one of the Slavic gods named .
With time the association with Slavic gods faded, but the swastika was preserved both as a personal symbol of various personalities, such as the , and in folk culture, for example, in the region of , where the swastika was used as a well into the 20th century. As a solar symbol, it was painted or carved on various parts of houses in the and was thought to save the household from evil.
The ancient symbol used by the societies was adopted by the in the 1920s. It was adopted as a regimental insignia by the artillery units of the and , as well as by the soldiers of the 4th Legions' Infantry, the 2nd and the 4th Podhale Rifles. A distinctive blue swastika was a background emblem of the Air defence and Anti-gas League (1928–1939, LOPP), which had circa 1.5 million members in 1937.
Outside of the military traditions, the mountaineer's swastika also influenced a number of other symbols and logos used on Polish soil. Among such was the logo of the IGNIS publishing company (est. 1822), and the personal symbol of , a notable composer and admirer of the Tatras. After his death in the mountains in 1909, the place of his death was marked by a memorial stone and a swastika.
RussiaBadges worn by the Kalmyk formations of the Red Army in 1919.
The Russian Provisional Government of 1917 printed a number of new bank notes with right-facing, diagonally rotated swastikas in their centres During the , the 's units wore distict armbands featuring the swastika with "RSFSR" inscriptions on them.
Swedenlogo used from the late nineteenth century until 1933
In a painting of the god fighting , by the Swedish artist from 1872, a swastika is clearly visible in his belt.
The company , now a part of , used the swastika in its logo from the 1890s to 1933, when it was removed from the logo.
As a Native American symbolArizona state highway marker from the late 1920s.
Because this was a popular symbol with the , the marked its state highways with signs featuring a right-facing swastika superimposed on an arrowhead. In 1942, after the United States entered World War Two, the department replaced the signs.
The original Penobscot Building in Detroit, Michigan, completed about 1906, "was named after the and region of , the boyhood home of one of the investors. An interesting feature in the Indian-themed detail of the building is the occasional appearance of a swastika, a symbol important to the Penobscots long before it was adopted by the Nazi party." The decorative symbols feature right-facing arms and are tilted in the same manner as the Nazi flag, leading to confusion over their origin.
Use by the militaryOriginal insignia of the 45th Infantry Division (from the American Indian symbol). Former insignia of the 55th Pursuit Squadron.
The of the used a yellow swastika on a red background as a unit symbol until the 1930s, when it was switched to a . The American Division wore the swastika patch while fighting against Germany in World War I.
The squadron flew World War I fighters against Germany from 1916 to 1918, first as volunteers under French command and later as a United States unit. The official squadron insignia was a with a swastika adorned headdress. Some of the squadron planes also bore a large swastika in addition to the squadron insignia.
Among the Lafayette Escadrille members who were killed in action was of , who is buried in a Jewish cemetery with a grave marker that includes the squadron insignia, complete with swastika.
The coat of arms includes a number of historic symbols. A tepee with small, left facing swastikas represents the unit's campaigns in the Indian Wars of the late 19th century. The Regiment fought German forces during World War II, landing on at , through five European campaigns and received a Presidential Unit Citation for action during the .
Swastikas surround the exterior window iconography at the in Washington D.C. on Constitution Avenue between 20th and 21st Streets. The building was designed by and completed in 1937. Cret fought against Germany during World War I while serving in the French army.
The Post Office features both left and right facing swastikas, along with other designs typical of "Zig Zag Moderne" style, later known as a variation of "Art Deco". It was designed in 1932 by , who had previously served as the Nevada State Architect. The building was financed in part by the federal and was listed on the in 1990.
The Post Office, built in 1934, included inlaid swastika floor tiles. In 1965 The removed tiles with arms facing to the right, but retained some with arms facing to the left.
The six-story in downtown features a Mediterranean style and decorative Native American design motifs. Built in 1930, its decorative features include "Radiators set in each wall of the foyer [that] are hidden by brass grilles in a swastika design". It has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since 1980.
The third courthouse was built in 1903 and razed in 1965. Numerous swastika patterns are visible in photographs of a mosaic tile floor. The symbols have shortened arms pointing to the left.
The in , built in 1905, includes swastika decorated railings. The Classical Revival style courthouse was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1978.
Swastikas are a minor feature in painted murals in the Allen County Courthouse in , completed in 1902. They are described as "a Native American symbol for joy". The murals were restored beginning in 1994 as part of an eight-year, .6 million project. The courthouse was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1976, and as a National Historic Landmark in 2003.
Mosaic swastika tile patterns decorate the floor of the Courthouse in , designed by architect Samuel Hannaford and built in 1901. The tiles are described as "an adopted Indian symbol for 'good luck and prosperity.'"
In 2017, a candidate for the city council called for removal or alteration of a Native American scene in a restored 200-foot long City Hall mural because it contains a swastika symbol. The mural was created in 1936, part of the federal when the building served as a federal courthouse. Several images in the mural had generated complaints for decades, resulting in it being painted over and then restored, twice.
The Laguna Bridge in was built in 1905 by the U.S. and is decorated with a row of swastikas with right-facing arms.
Displayed with Christian and Jewish symbols
Several examples of U.S. architectural decoration feature swastikas displayed alongside other religious symbols.
The for the , located in , , depicts religious symbols on each of its 9 outer pillars. "The symbols are arranged in chronological order-from bottom to top-on the pillars. That's why the swastika is at the base, with the Star of David above it..." The design dates to 1920 but construction was not completed until 1953. The largest House of Worship in the world, the white domed building has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since 1978.
The "Golden Rule Window" in the Transfiguration Episcopal Church in New York City features medallion symbols depicting world religions, with Buddhism represented by the "flyflot cross" near a Jewish . Built in 1849 with several modifications through 1926, the church was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1973. During the Civil War the church worked for abolition of slavery and harboured runaway slaves.
A student union at the includes a 1929 chapel with stained glass windows that feature religious symbols. A , along with a Christian cross, Hebrew star and others.
The in Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, established in 1897 by the , includes ornate decoration. The rotunda includes a adjacent to a Star of David.
Swastika Park is the name of a housing subdivision in Miami, Florida, created in 1917.
An upscale subdivision in is named "Swastika Acres". Its name has been traced to the Denver Swastika Land Company, founded in 1908.
, located near the Preserve in the northeast corner of the state, is adjacent to "Swastika Road".
The "Swastika Trail" is a historic auto trail in .
As early as 1914, "Swastika Beach" was recorded as the name of the unincorporated community at the southwest end of in Jackson County, Minnesota.
The , Detroit, Michigan built cars from 1909 to 1915 with a radiator badge that featured a right-facing white swastika on a blue background.
The manufactured steel valves in the 1920s and 30's in the U.S. with swastika markings, using a symbol with the arms pointed to the right.
The of manufactured "High Grade Tools for High Grade Workmen" from about 1909 to 1922. The Buffum company's trademark was a swastika with right facing arms. During World War I it made bayonets and aeroplane parts. The company's logo was the "Good Luck/Blessing/Swastika Cross" and many of the products, sold nationwide, had "the good luck cross on them."Logo of Washington Charcrete Co, early 20th century
The Washington Charcrete Company manufactured "laundry trays" (concrete utility sinks) with an imprinted logo bearing a swastika. Some examples survive (see pictures), but the date of their manufacture is unknown. The company did business in the states of Washington and Oregon and is mentioned in a 1914 ruling by the Supreme Court of Washington State.
The Duplex Adding Machine Company of issued stock certificates in 1910 that show the company's logo, a swastika with right-facing arms and math symbols.
Flour was sold under the brand name Swastika, The Lucky Flour by the Federal Milling Co., Lockport, N.Y. as advertised in 1909, and by the Monte Vista Milling and Elevator Company of , which registered the name in 1910.
The Downtown Historic District in , listed on the National Register of Historic Places, includes the Swastika Coal office and Swastika Hotel buildings.
The mining town of Lakeview Idaho featured a "Swastika Hotel" in 1910, owned and operated by the Swastika Mining Company.
The St. Louis, Rocky Mountain and Pacific Railroad Company operated with cars and locomotives "emblazoned with the red swastika symbol adopted as the road’s trademark." The symbol featured right facing arms and was tilted at an angle. The 105-mile "Swastika Line" operated from about 1902 to 1915, with major stops at and . The tracks were torn up for scrap during World War II when "Swastika Line iron was used to fight a different kind of swastikas in Europe."
A "Swastika Theater" operated in in the early 20th century. Another "Swastika Theater" operated in .
The Swastika Novelty Company of Charleston, W.Va., made a "talking board", similar to a board, in 1907.
"Swastika Boards" were built using laminated redwood and balsa wood by legendary surfer in Los Angeles from 1931 until 1939 when they were renamed "Waikiki Surfboards" "Swastikas became the most widely used production solid board of the period leading into World War II."
In popular culture
The swastika is seen on binders of pre-Nazi era publications of works by . Both left and right orientations were used.
Two white swastika symbols on an Indian blanket made an appearance in the 1922 silent movie "". A newspaper columnist noted Nazis had adopted the swastika in 1920, prior to the film's release but that "Only a bonehead would read anything sinister into that coincidence."
Publisher adopted a blue swastika as a symbol for his line of , Magazine Publishers. When the company was purchased by in 1929, the swastika was replaced with an .
Swastika quilt patterns were popular in America prior to World War II. In 2010 the in received a donated quilt covered in 27 swastikas, believed to date to around 1900. "The swastika pattern is also known as the Battle X of Thor, Catch Me If You Can, Devil's Dark Horse, Whirligig and Zig Zag" according to the museum registrar. The quilt was not put on general display while museum officials considered how to provide context.
A quilt with swastika-like pattern dating to 1927 was removed from display from a museum in December 2010 after complaints from the public. A group of residents of the Bear's Paw Mountains had embroidered their names in the historic quilt, a gift for an ill neighbor. "It was a very, very nice quilt and the story behind it was absolutely heartwarming" according to a member of the museum foundation.
Metal Swastika borders were used by U.S. printers in the early 20th century. Controversy arose in 1937 when they appeared on sample election ballots. The printer responded, "I've used the swastika emblems for ballot borders long before the world ever knew Hitler."
In the novel , the story of which takes place during the , one of the characters runs a business called "The Swastika Holding Company."
Use by non-political clubs and organisations
The sponsored a Girl's Club with swastika membership pins, swastika-decorated handkerchief and a magazine titled, "The Swastika". Their version of the symbol was square with right facing arms. The club was formed at the beginning of the 20th century to encourage young women to sell magazine subscriptions.
The 1939 yearbook lists a "Swastika Club" among women's student organisations. The group focused on literature, scholarship and "clear and straight thinking". Tennessee State is the only state-funded historically Black university in Tennessee.
The yearbook for in , first published in 1927, was known as the "Swastika", after a Native American design pattern found in the original tile of a campus administration building. The name was changed in 1941. The liberal arts college was established by the United Church of Christ in 1851.
The professional baseball team wore a "luck inviting Swastika emblem" on the front of their caps on opening day in 1914.
At least one team used the name: the Cañon City Swastikas represented in the Class D Rocky Mountain League in 1912. The team moved to mid-season, then disbanded along with the league.
The "Swastika Club of Freedom Township" was formed in 1923 in rural , a social club serving farm women. The group produced a "Swastika Club Cookbook" in 1934. Its name was changed to the "Freedom Township Women’s Club" in 1942. Another "Swastika Club" for women met in Howell County Missouri in the 1920s.
The Swastika Canoe Club, of competed with other canoe clubs in the eastern U.S.
Coins, tokens and watch fobs
Collectors have identified more than 1,400 different swastika design coins, souvenir or merchant/trade tokens and , distributed by mostly local retail and service businesses in the United States. The tokens that can be dated range from 1885 to 1939, with a few later exceptions. About 57 percent have the swastika symbol facing to the left, 43 percent to the right. Most promise good luck or feature other symbols such as a horseshoe, four leaf clover, rabbit's foot, wishbone or keys.
In 1925, made a lucky watch fob in the shape of a swastika with right-facing arms and the slogan, "Drink Coca Cola five cents in bottles".
The of offered a "Good Luck" token featuring a left facing swastika in addition to a four-leaf clover, horseshoe, wishbone and Plains Indian emblem. The company was sold in 1918 and became known as the Company. has a 1908 leather watch fob with a brass swastika that was created for the presidential campaign of .
The 1917 World War I good luck medal was produced in the United States with an American eagle superimposed by a four-leaf clover "and a swastika – an ancient symbol of good luck". The medal was designed by Adam Pietz, who served as Assistant Engraver at the in for nearly 20 years.
Some Boy Scout good luck tokens issued by the Excelsior Shoe company feature the swastika on the reverse.
The Cliff Dwellers Apartment building in New York City, completed in 1914, features two terracotta swastikas, tilted with arms pointing to the left. The building is well known for its western themed frieze, featuring buffalo skulls, mountain lions and rattlesnakes.
The in , dedicated in 1890 as a tomb and memorial for assassinated U.S. President , contains swastika tile patterns throughout the floor. The 180-foot-tall (55 m) building was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1973.
A small swastika is visible in the elaborate carvings representing several cultures above the main entrance to the .
A Chicago television investigative journalism report in July 2015 found numerous examples of swastikas in the city's architecture. "A swastika is on the front of Chicago's most popular tourist attraction, Navy Pier, and seen at the one of Columbia College's South Loop buildings. It is embedded in marble floors at University of Chicago on the Lower West Side and an embellishment on a city monument to Jacques Marquette. The design is on what is now the Bridgeview Bank, and the former Continental Illinois Bank, along with countless pre-WWII Chicago homes and apartment buildings."foyer mosaic with swastika design, installed in 1893 and kept with 1905 restoration of the building following a fire
A swastika design, intended as a welcoming symbol of good fortune, inspired by Native American symbolism, was installed into the floor of the entryway of the , a private in . Rebuilt in 1905 using a design by architect , the site is a conforming property in the listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
The in , built in 1927 in the Pueblo Deco style and restored in 2000, is owned and operated by the city, which describes it as an "architectural gem". The building includes Native American design elements, including swastikas with right facing arms. It was nearly torn down in 1977, the same year the KiMo was listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
In 1907, the in , featured a design that had a swastika on one of the towers as an "Indian good luck sign". Each year the exterior is covered with elaborate murals made of South Dakota corn, grain and grasses. The building is the centerpiece of a historic district that is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
In , there are swastikas in the lobby of the , which opened in 1928. They are decorations honoring the Native American culture of Western South Dakota. The hotel is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
The Weston building on the campus of in Massachusetts features left facing, tilted swastika brick patterns. The building was originally a fraternity with a charter that banned Jews and non-Caucasians. The college uses it for language classes to ensure regular use by different cultures, and built a Jewish religious center behind it.
The Shaffer Hotel in features both right and left facing swastika designs among its many Native American graphics. It has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since 1978. As of 2016, it is closed.
The Perelman Building was completed in 1928 as the headquarters of the Fidelity Mutual Life Insurance Company but is now part of the . Swastikas are visible in the elaborate decorative scheme, credited to . The building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1973.
The Entrance to the features a walkway frieze with a swastika meander pattern. The first section of the current building was completed in 1928.
A Philadelphia fire station built in 1927 became controversial when local residents petitioned to remove a swastika design resembling the German Military Iron Cross. The township Commissioners, a majority of whom are Jewish, voted in 1998 to deny the petition, a position supported by local representatives of the Anti-Defamation League and Jewish Community Relations Council. "A symbol's meaning, they say, is tied to its context."
The Headquarters and Library, built in 1916 in the in , includes Native American swastika designs. The non-profit is "An International Genealogical, Historical Heraldic and Chivalric Society".
The 1926 —— of the is decorated with Native American swastikas. It is located at the in , California. The property has been designated a .
Both appear in disks near the top of columns on the building in , Hawaii, built in 1929 and added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1979.
Sidewalks with swastika impressions can be found at , a historic neighborhood on the city's east side. The concrete impressions, dated 1914, bear the word "Quality" and the name of the construction company.
A swastika design is visible on the exterior of the Detroit, Michigan downtown public library, built in 1931. A "They were a popular item in certain designs, and many are used in architecture throughout Downtown Detroit. They also can be seen quite often on floor tiles in church buildings."
The First Chinese Church of Christ in , dedicated in 1929, features wooden pews with swastika carvings. The church website says they "depict the wan-zi, an ancient Chinese symbol of 10,000 years of eternal blessedness. Sadly, Hitler reversed this symbol and made it into his Nazi swastika."
The Carlton Apartments in , Texas, built in 1918, features an entryway framed by tiles with various patterns including the swastika.
Efforts to remove historical swastikas
More than 900 cast iron lampposts decorated with swastikas remain in place in downtown . The lampposts were manufactured in and installed in the 1920s. In 1995 the city responded to complaints that the lampposts should be removed. The city attorney's response included "...research has revealed that the symbol itself was not uncommon in Judaism. The symbol itself has been found to appear in ancient synagogues as well as being found as a symbol appearing on sarcophagus in Roman catacombs." Cost to replace the lampposts was estimated at million. The "has recommended preservation of the lampposts to the maximum extent possible."
Similar swastika designs can be seen on the lampposts outside the old , built in 1873, and listed on the National Register of Historic Places since 1976 and currently serves as a museum.
The nominated the for listing on the National Register of Historic Places in 2003. Historic Architect A. G. Dill thanked the commission. "Ms. Dill stated that her office was galvanised in 1999 when the new school principal attempted to chisel off the Greek key design because it had a swastika pattern. The school was built in 1925 prior to the Nazi’s taking over the symbol. Educators need to be educated." However, the Nazi party adopted the swastika in 1920, five years before the school was built.
The yearbook continued under the name "The Swastika" in honour of the traditional meaning of the symbol.
In January 1999, Civil Rights groups asked the Commission to remove nine swastikas carved into stone pillars at the county courthouse in . The building was completed in 1931 with symbols featuring both left and right facing arms. A commission aide said officials would not consider the request unless there were "an awful lot of folks worrying us."
The restored Hospitality House in San Diego became controversial when swastika symbols were discovered on five light fixtures. The design dates to 1935. Park officials welded metal plates over the swastikas after a protest by the . The San Diego Historical Society notes that the lamps were donated by a German American group and were intended to represent Nazi symbols. The nearby Balboa Park tea house had previously featured swastika decorations in 1915.
A hand-carved wooden horse with swastikas on its saddle has been removed from a classic at a shopping center in following complaints by the public. The carousel was built in 1921 and installed in and later was a featured ride at Amusement Park which opened in 1928 as the largest amusement park in the United States. The Parker "Four-Row Park Carousel" was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1987. It is the only surviving carousel out of four made from the design. The original was created for the 1904 .
Ceramic tiles with a swastika design were produced by a number of North American manufacturers in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. They were often installed in repeating patterns or in combination with related ancient symbols. In western architecture, pre-World War II swastika tiles are typically a minor decorative element and have only become prominent when their original intent or symbolic meaning has been re-interpreted.
Swastika tiles adorn the in , in a room built in the 1930s. A newspaper article in notes that the statehouse tiles were created by the local Mueller Mosaic Company. Led by , the firm used an innovative technique that combined and deep carving to create a photographic-like sense of depth. The tiles were installed throughout the United States and Canada. The swastika design was only one of many different symbols featured in the Mueller catalogue.
A columnist in 2015 began a campaign to remove swastika tiles from the , designed by Jewish architect Albert Kahn in 1915.
Reprints of tile catalogues, including the 1930 Mueller Mosaic Tile Inserts catalogue are available from the non-profit California based . Swastika tiles are also featured in the 1920 catalogue from Wheatley Pottery Company of Ohio, the 1928 catalogue from the Cambridge-Wheatley Company of , which marketed Wheatley tiles and a 1930s catalogue from the Franklin Pottery Company of .
The Mueller tiles with swastika design can be found at the in Los Angeles.
In May 2006, five tiles were removed from in , the oldest parish in the community. The upper church, constructed in the late 1920s, included a number of decorative tiles including a series of ten that depicted ancient forms of the . Located near the eaves, the tiles represented the , also known as the , "hooked cross". The five swastika tiles alternated with a related design featuring the or "Basque cross". The upper church's final design was created by the local architectural firm of Nairne W. Fisher, who had fought against Germany during World War I. Three of the tiles were destroyed in the process of removal, one was put on permanent display at the church. The removal was prompted in part by criticism from some current and former faculty at , where the university's electronic diversity newsletter featured a series of articles, including that claimed by 1920 it was already "the symbol of conquest and mastery".
Other Catholic Cathedrals that include swastika tiles among their decorations include: , , a design by architect Edward J. Weber of , completed in 1925. , built between 1868 and 1925 overlooking the port city of Ireland. , New Zealand, constructed in the 1880s. The Cathedral of , completed in the late 19th century with additional remodelling (see for photograph of swastika tile floor, click on fifth camera icon). A tile floor at in England is laid out in a swastika like pattern with arms pointed to the right. The floor at in France features a right-facing swastika pattern with shortened arms, similar to the tiles. A popular tourist destination, Amiens is protected as a site.
The in includes swastika tiles. The five-story home was constructed beginning in 1917 by , a prominent figure in the history of the . The home was designed by Thomas Ellerbe, a second generation architect whose firm is now known as . It has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since 1975.
In 2008, school officials decided not to remove swastika floor tiles with left-facing arms from a elementary school built in 1929. A member of the City's Native American Commission noted that the nine tiles at the school entrances have roots in Native American symbolism. "It has absolutely nothing to do with the Nazi symbolism."
St. Columba's Catholic Church in , was designed by Pittsburg architect John T. Cornes and completed in 1914 as a territorial church for English speaking immigrants. Various forms of the cross are represented in the sanctuary's mosaic floor, including swastika designs. A local art enthusiast notes "People don't realise that the swastika was not always a sign of hatred and horror; it originally symbolised good lock and fortune".
Swastika floor tiles were removed from the St. Lawrence Catholic Church in in March 1996, after they were discovered during renovation of the church entrance. The church was built in the early 1920s.
The Arizona Department of Agriculture building in , built in 1930, features swastika tiles in a pattern near its roofline.Indiana University School of Public Health-Bloomington swastikas
The School of Public Health-Bloomington Building at contains decorative Native American-inspired swastika on the walls of the foyer and stairwells on the southeast side of the building. In response to a complaint about the tiles, "The president of the university sent a letter to the student, which explained the history of the symbol and the context in which it was placed in the School of Public Health-Bloomington (formerly HPER) building when it was built in 1917, prior to use of the symbol by the Nazis. The student appreciated the response". In November 2013, a new appeal to remove the symbols appeared in the University's student paper.
Swastika , at in , built in 1927.
In November 1998 the reported that swastika tiles were removed from the Gansevoort Elementary School where they had survived on a school floor for 84 years. A Sentinel editorial noted that similar tiles were left untouched at a Jewish synagogue, Temple Beth El, in nearby "because the connotation to the Jewish congregation is not that of the Third Reich."
Swastika tiles in a condominium lobby floor in became the subject of a television news story and internet postings in September 2011. The housing complex's management indicated "the tile was installed before WWII when the building was built in 1924, noting it had never received a complaint before."
A local news report in April 2016 prompted Catholic Church officials to immediately remove four swastika tiles from the Cathedral. The church was constructed in the early 1930s. The tiles had gone unnoticed for more than 80 years in a little used church alcove. .
Swastika tiles in a courthouse floor in became controversial in late 2016 after a former city council member complained. The small ceramic swastika tiles were one of dozens of different symbols in the floor, in a classic styles courthouse build in 1928 and listed on the National Register of Historical Places since 1983. A county judge indicated the tiles would be left in place.
In 1991, the school board voted to remove tiles with swastika engravings from their high School physical education building.
The News Agency that the seaside community of voted to remove swastika tiles from their town hall floor, built in 1923, after complaints from the Director of the . The removal went forward in spite of opposition from a local Jewish synagogue.
Multicolored swastika tiles are visible on the exterior of a Chinese restaurant at the in . The building dates to the early 1930s. The editor of a local Jewish publication reacted by saying "You know, the swastika does predate Nazism. Short of any Nazi context, I don’t think you should find it offensive."
The foyer of in features right-facing swastikas set into the tile floor. The school was built in 1906 and was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1979.
The courthouse in has that have been alternately covered up and painted over. An architectural historian for the noted that the symbols could be removed even though the courthouse is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In September 2009, court officials decided to leave the tiles in place.
The San Mateo County History Museum, a "regional history center" in is housed in the former county courthouse, . The mosaic tile floor in the rotunda includes swastika designs. The building is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and the museum is accredited by the .
The in , built in 1894, includes a swastika tile floor design. The building has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since 1976, and a California State Historic Landmark in 1990.
Swastika tiles are visible at the San Diego , which opened in 1925.
The Ernst Cafe in the New Orleans Warehouse district has a 1902 swastika pattern tile floor, with left facing symbols. The restaurant's web page notes that Hitler was a teenager when the floor was installed.
The Moorish style Majestic Theater in , built in 1928, features hundreds of colored tiles with a variety of geometric designs including numerous swastikas with arms pointing to the right. The theater was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1985 but has fallen into disrepair.
The , built in 1912 in , Pennsylvania, has colored swastika floor tiles. The theater was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1973.
The station of the features a ceramic mosaic design with a border of swastikas, which dates back to the station's 1904 opening.
In early 2016, the board of directors of the in debated removing swastika tiles from the church, constructed in 1925, and added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1985.
Miscellaneous useThe jury in the 1912 leaving for lunch in a car adorned with the symbol.
- The 44-foot luxury yacht Lady Isabel is the centerpiece of the Wisconsin-Built Boat Gallery at the Wisconsin Maritime Museum in . Built in 1907, it was known for decades as the "Swastika", meaning "Well Being". Swastika symbols are visible on the front of a building in the historic area of , built in 1894 that originally served as a hardware store.
- The "Swastika Series" is a name given to a soil type in by the U.S. National Cooperative Soil Survey.
- In December 2007, the displayed a period room decorated for Christmas that included candlesticks with swastika motifs. The room's interior design had been preserved since 1905 and was created by a decorator. "The symbols as seen in the Duluth Room have no Third Reich connotations, but rather refer to the ancient symbol."
- Jewish artist , whose family fled Germany in the late 1930s, has produced a travelling exhibit entitled "Reclaiming the Symbol" that "strives to reclaim the star, the cross and the swastika to their positive use.". The exhibit features excerpts from the book "Swastika the Earliest Known Symbol and its Migrations" written by Thomas Wilson and published by the .
- The Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum in Washington D.C. displays the original propeller spinner from aeroplane , manufactured in early 1927. A swastika, leftpointing, was painted on the inside of the spinner cone along with the names of all the Ryan Aircraft Co. employees that built the aeroplane, presumably as a message of good luck prior to Lindbergh's solo Atlantic crossing.
- University faculty at Catholic Jesuit voted to remove a painting by Italian priest Renato Laffranchi in 2004. The painting symbolised four rivers flowing from the Garden of Eden, with gardens in four quadrants, and resembled a swastika with shortened arms. The university's president refused to remove the painting prior to its scheduled annual rotation.
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